ucture It involves in transportation of materials. · It

ucture and its
components

 

Cell:

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Human body is made up
of several small units called cells. 
Cell controls all the activities of all living organisms.

The cell was discovered
by the scientist Robert Hooke.

The name was taken from
the Latin;’cellula’ means “a small chamber”.

Classification
of cells:

Type
of cells:

1. Prokaryotic cell.

2. Eukaryotic cell.

Prokaryotic
cell:

A cell that does not
contain membrane-bound organelles is called a prokaryotic cell

It is known as simple
cell.

Example: Bacteria.

Eukaryotic
cell:

A cell that contain a
well defined nucleus, a nuclear membrane and membrane-bound cell organelles is
called a eukaryotic cell

It is known as a
complete cell.

The two types of Eukaryotic
cells are:

1. Animal cell.

2. Plant cell.

The animal and plant
cells are not same.  They vary in their
size and structure and their functions, but both the cells are similar in their
basic organisation.

Animal
cell:

Plasma membrane:

·        
It gives rigid structure and shape to
the cell.

·        
It protects the cell.

Cytoplasm:

·        
It is a liquid like material inside the
cell.

·        
It contain proteins.

Nucleus:

·        
It remotes all the activities of the cell.

·        
It contains the genetic material.

Mitochondria:

·        
Mitochondria Involved in the process of
cell respiration.

·        
It Provide energy to the cell.

·        
It is known as “power house of the
cell”.

Golgi bodies:

·        
Golgibodies secrete enzymes and
hormones.

·        
It is in the tubular structure..

·        
It contain proteins..

Endoplasmic reticulum:

·        
It involves in transportation of materials.

·        
It flat in shape .

·        
It involves protein synthesis.

Ribosome:

·        
It is called protein factories of the
cell.

·        
It is a RNA molecule.

Lysosomes:

·        
It helps in intracellular and
extracellular digestion.

·        
It is called suicidal bags of the cell.

Centrosome:

·        
It is present only in animal cell.

·        
It is help in cell division and cell
cycle.

Vacuoles:

·        
They control intracellular pressure.

·        
They store cell sap.

·        
It contain some food particles need to
the cell.

 

Plant
cell:

The plant cell differ
from animal cell by,

·        
The centrosome is absent in the plant
cell.

·        
Plants are rigid in shape.

·        
They have plastids.

·        
They have large vacuoles.

Cell wall:

·        
Outer layer gives shape to the cell.

·        
Made up of cellulose.

 

Plastids:

·        
They contain pigments.

 

 

Classified into 3 types:

1.
Chloroplast – it is a green pigment

2.
Chromoplast –it is an orange and yellow pigment

3.
Leucoplast –it has  no pigment

Difference
between plant cell and animal cell:

Plant
cell

Animal
cell

Cell
wall is present

Cell
wall is absent

Large
vacuoles are present

Small
vacuoles are present

Chloroplast
is present

Chloroplast
is absent.

Rigid
in shape

not
in rigid shape