Total is given below, · Accuracy is high. ·

Total Station TS

 

This
is a surveying equipment and it is made on combination of electromagnetic
distance measuring instrument and electronic theodolite. Normally we used to
total station to measure the following fundamental quantities in the field.
These are,

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·       
Horizontal
angles.

·       
Vertical angles.

·       
Sloping distance.  

As well as total station can perform following functions,

·       
Distance
measurement.

·       
Angular
measurement.

·       
Data
processing.

·       
Digital
display of point details.

·       
Storing
data is an electronic field book.

Some
of major benefits of using total station over the conventional survey
instruments given below,

·       
Surveying
is carried out very fast.

·       
Accuracy
of measurement is high.

·       
Manual
errors involved in reading and recording are eliminated.

·       
Calculation
of elevation and coordinates are accurate and fast event the correction for
temperature and pressure are made automatically.

·       
Data
can be directly transferred to computers for further processing like plotting
contours.

 

Electronic
distance measurement instruments EDMs

This
is an instrument for measuring distances between two points by electronically
from the electromagnetic waves. EDMs are lighter, Simpler and less expensive
instruments. It is used infrared light, microwaves and laser light. Usually,
EDMs are come in short range 0.5-3 Km, medium range 3-10 Km and long range
10-20 Km. Also normally, Electronic distance measurement instruments may be
classified into three types. These are,

·       
Microwave
instruments.

·       
Light
wave instruments.

·       
Infrared
wave instruments.

Some
of major benefits of electronic distance measurement is given below,

·       
Accuracy
is high.

·       
Easy
to handle.

·       
Long
range.

·       
Can
get measurements on moving targets.

·       
Less
expensive.

·       
Lighter
and simpler.

Laser plummet

A laser plummet or laser theodolite may be used for control verticality.
The instrument is setup on the ground floor slab directly over the reference
mark and the laser beam is project vertically up through the opening in the
upper floor. The beam is intercepted by the use plastic target fitted in the
opening. The point at which the beam meet the target is marked to provide
reference in the upper floor. Some of benefits of use in laser plummet are
given below,

·       
Accuracy is high.

·       
Easy to handle.

·       
Control verticality.

·       
Lighter and simpler.

 

Global
Positioning System GPS

This
is a navigation system of highly accurate and it use satellites to get signals
and then it determine a location on the earth surface. The NAVSTAR provides
precise 03 dimensional position navigation and time information to suitably equipped
uses.

The
first commercial adaptation of GPS are surveying and mapping. Without using
measured distances and angles between two points, it provides a latitude and
longitude directly of this points. Normally in our country, GPS used to
determine the points location and setting out purposes. Also the GPS consists
of three segments as space segments, control segment and user segment. So, GPS
has a lot of benefits for surveying. Some of them are,

·       
Highly
accurate.

·       
Data
collection is much faster.

·       
Reduce
equipments and labors requirements for relevant work.

·       
Easy
to handle.

·       
Lighter
and simpler.

·       
Reduce
time wastage going on for relevant work.