This booklet will explain the potential hazards and harms that could appear in health and social care setting such as Nursey, Nursing homes, Residential care home, Maternity ward and Hospital. Also apply Health and safety legislations, policies and procedures regarding the hazards that may occur in the settings I have chosen above and lastly explain what safety and security is and what its aim is.Potential hazards that may arise in each health and social care settingHazard, is a thing that could set individuals at risk of being injured or harmed due to that hazard. The Health and Safety Authority website states that a hazard is also frequently defined as “A hazard is a potential source of harm or adverse health effect on a person or persons'” this shows that it can be a harmful event which impacts an individual’s health and wellbeing. In addition, there are dissimilar ways hazards are encountered e.g. health hazards, safety hazards and security hazards. A health hazard is an incident that causes an individual’s health become at risk of getting an illness. Whereas, a safety hazard is an intended event that puts individuals or properties at risk of being harmed, injured or damaged. Lastly, security hazard is thief that trespasses someone else’s property without given permission of the owner, breaking forcefully or leaving without accord, also it could be the theft of personal information e.g. Computer hacking, retrieving confidential information without the consent of owner.Furthermore, a risk is a possibility which an incident will arise with harmful effects for an individual or others whom may encounter. For example, a risk based from a physical state of an individual can be e.g. a patient in hospital with serious and contagious health condition can’t be put in the same room as the other patients as it puts them at risk of catching that disease and their health. Moreover, a risk based from an emotional state of an individual includes aggressive behavior, anxiety or depression thus they may start to act aggressively towards their carers or other service users which potentially puts others at risk of being harmed or injured by that user. Thus, a risk is the result of being exposed to a hazard. Also, a risk and a hazard are dissimilar in certain ways such as e.g. a risk can be measurable, mild or severe (high or low) whereas, a hazard is not measurable as it’s unpredicted.In a nursery, children’s health can be at risk if electrical outlets that’re not being used and that are unsafe are left unguarded e.g. in a nursery plug sockets that are left unguarded leads to children sticking in their fingers or dangerous objects which then puts them at risk of getting an electric shock, thus all sockets when not being used must be covered with socket covers for safety. Another, potential hazard that can occur in nursery is toys, toys that are set up loose or toys that have become worn out can put children risk of easily breaking off and choking on it, thus nursery teacher should be alarmed by always checking that toys do not have small parts that can easily be ripped off also that toys are age appropriate as infants shouldn’t have toys with button eyes and noses as infant can easily break it off and put in their mouth. Thus, teachers should minimize the risk by providing all children with age appropriate toys and making sure that toys are not worn out and easy to break. Other potential hazards that can be found in a Nursery are:• Cords left on floor- risks of strangling and electrocuting, so they should be put away if they are not being used• Dangerous items kept away- like disinfectants, scissors or belonging of carer’, must be put away from the eye of children.In a residential care home a potential hazard can be blocked corridors of the care home, if there are objects and items obstructing the hallway then it will be really hard for service users and carers to go through in case of fire evacuation or just about their daily life as blockage of walkway could cause falls or trips and make it hard for wheelchair users to go through, also the blockage of walkways could lead to risks of broken bone or fractures from falls or even concussion from falls, thus to avoid this carers should make sure that they follow up policies and procedure their workplace has in place to maintain the health and wellbeing of their users and care givers. E.g. moving things that are not needed out of the way, not leaving item unattended. This hazard doesn’t just effect care givers and users but also effects visitors as it puts their health at risk also if they see object left in the middle of the hallway unattended it gives them a reason why they shouldn’t want their relative or parent being in this care home as it isn’t safe to be here. Other potential hazards that can be found in a care home are:• Hazards from Equipment’s:• Unsafe practice- not having enough training to handle certain equipment’s. • Poor maintenance – not checking of the car home• Environmental-? Poor lightening in rooms and corridors ? Temperature of rooms -too high or low Moreover, in a Hospital a range of major and minor hazards can be found widely. Some potential hazards in a hospital environment can be slips, falls and trips, latex allergy, noise, eye injury, radiation, stress, needlestick injuries and more. For example, stress is a major factor on the users, their families and their care givers. From a health professional point of view stress is a hazard as they’re exposed to challenging and emotional state of matters, a risk of stress to their health this is a change in their sleep patterns and having troubles with sleeping which also then leads to the use of sleeping drugs or any kind of drugs and alcohol. Another hazard is slips and trips, from wet floors this could be floors that may be contaminated water, or trips from unhidden tubes, cords or hoses. These hazards all risk in an individual’s getting hurt and falling sick both emotionally and physically. Also, if these hazards are seen by anyone they should report to and employer if it’s a worker they should follow the risk assessment steps and try and eliminate or isolate the hazard or report to a health and safety representative.Furthermore, in a children’s psychiatric ward a potential substance’s hazard that may be found in this unit can be cleaning chemical products, children whom are put in this recovery ward should be away from where the cleaning products are stored in and those whom are in charge of cleaning and handling the cleaning products should make sure that they don’t leave anything behind as is a risk to the children in this ward as they may try to cause harm to themselves by trying to drink the harmful in toxic fluid or use it to harm other individuals.Control of Substances Hazardous to Health 2004 (COSHH) – this legislation has been amended many times over the years. It is a health and safety regulation, what it covers is, to makes sure that any substances like chemicals and cleaning products that can cause harm to anyone’s health e.g. bleach has to be stored away in a locked cupboard to prevent accidents and injuries to the individuals whom are using it. Some forms of substances • Products containing chemicals • Chemicals• Dusts • Gases • Fumes vapours • Mist Civil Contingencies Act (2004) – this Act replaces the previous Civil Defence and Emergency Powers legislation. This Act is an Act of the Parliament of the UK, which offers the government to make rules and regulation to form a clear outline or framework for planning emergencies and replies alternating from local level to national level.Care Minimum Standard- This standard focuses on the safety, well-being, dignity and quality of life for the service users, its aimed to address improper differences in the standard of care, treatment and services to raise the quality of services being offered to users.Nine sets of standards have now been published for;• Day care setting • Independent healthcare establishments• Residential care home s• Nursing agencies • Revised nursing homes • Domiciliary care agencies • Childminding and day care for children under 12 • Children’s homes Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations (1999) – This regulation was make known to support the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974. This regulation is set both for the employers and employee to both have equal duties of care making sure that the workplace is safe to be and will not hinder anyone’s health. This act prevents individuals from doing anything that could cause any harm and injury due to not fully fulfilling legal obligations or lack of knowledge. This acts purpose is to also strengthen employers common law of duty and make clear the employers responsibilities to health and safety issues.Employers Duties:• Identify risks by assessment • Take precautions• Evacuation procedures• Risks flowing from shared premisesData Protection Act (1998)- This act is set by the parliament in the UK, it’s a law in which entails organisations, people or companies whom hold personal data of those who use their service and to keep it hidden and ensure that no one can get hold of the private and personal information of their users easily except to those who are given permission.Principle of Data Protection Act, Data must be- • Fairly and lawfully processed• Processed for specified purposes • Adequate, relevant and not excessive • Accurate and up-to-date (where necessary)Data must be-• Not kept longer than necessary• secured• Processed in accordance with the data subjects right • Not transferred to countries without adequate protection Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (1992)- This regulation is also known as RIDDOR was amended in 2013 and the law entails employers and other individuals that are in control of other work grounds, to report and keep record of;• Work-related accidents that could cause serious injuries e.g. reportable injuries• Work-related accidents that could cause deaths• Diagnosed cases of certain industrial diseases and • Certain ‘dangerous occurrences’ e.g. incidents with the potential to cause harmReporting requirements for;• Accidents to non-workers e.g. public members• Fatal accidents• Accidents which results in the breakdown of a worker for more than seven days Food Safety Act 1990- all food stores/ providers within the UK must be registered with the government to serve or sell foods there are acts set in place to how it must be done, and when serving food to individuals it is made sure that the food is safe for individuals to consume. Food sellers should by law to set in place procedures on how to handle food safely, ensuring anyone’s not harmed. However, if someone serves food that is isn’t safe and hygienic to eat which they know of then the food provider will be held accountable for the negative actions that it might’ve caused for the person, for example, if a restaurant serves to their costumer’s foods from another day or that had been frozen (spoilt food) which could cause illnesses then they will be accountable for that person’s medical bills or other health needs that was caused by the food provider, or Interpreting food injurious to health (e.g. selling gluten-free food that contains gluten) for this offence there is £20,000 fine to be paid for each time the offence has been taken. Some other rules for food handlers to follow are as follows:• Wash hands thoroughly before handling any food product and after touching any raw meat• Follow basic hygiene practices e.g. showering and wearing clean clothing• Avoid behaviours such as smoking or nail biting when in contact with food• Wear clean clothing when handling food – a protective jacket to make sure that the food will not be contaminated by clothes that have been worn outside, and protects clothes underneath from fat, oil or other stains. • Tie hair back. It also helps to avoid contamination of food (such as getting hairs in food) if a hat is worn to cover hair.• Any wound should be covered with a waterproof plaster. It should be in a “detectable” colour (usually blue) so that it is easily spotted if it were to fall off. • If a food handler is feeling unwell e.g. sickness or diarrhoea, they should not handle food for at least 24 hours after the symptoms have lessened to avoid contaminating food (and passing the illness to colleagues).Health and Safety Work Act (1974)- this act is a major part of legislation which outlines and declares employers should and must ensure that the workplace is a safe environment where the employees as well as employers feel safe working. It outlines the rights and responsibilities of both the employer and its employee to working safely. For example, in an office there should be an appropriate chair fitted so the individuals won’t have to bend as much, to lessen risks of getting backache problems or in a construction that hard hats must be worn always to ensure the persons head is protected. In the workplace there should be a poster outlining the Act to be displayed for the employees to see and be aware of it. PoVA (Protection of Vulnerable Adults) scheme- is the PoVA list is for carers whom may have caused injury or harm to vulnerable service users within their care. This list must be looked out for when care providers want to consider an individual for a care position working with vulnerable adults.A care position-Is a position that enables carers employed by domiciliary care agencies to give personal care within their own homes to vulnerable adultsIs also a position which enables carers employed in care home to have regular contact during their duties with care home residents..