There using a substitute for cement hardening. Lastly, with

There is a growing interest in finding
different substitutes for a cement aggregate or hardening, leading these
different substitutes are natural fibers. Which is exemplified in a study
conducted by Savita et. al., (2007) wherein the researchers tested out
different substitutes for cement hardening, and was able to determine its
advantages to the cement hardening process. Another study wherein it was conducted
by Dhandania (2009) explained that finding substitutes for cement hardening
such as natural fibers is mainly because of its low cost, recyclability, non-corrosiveness,
low thermal conductivity, high strength and low weight ratio. In another
journal created by Zhang (2017). took note that the importance of finding
different substitutes as cement hardening or aggregate is due to the alarming
statistics showing the negative effects of cement production as it produces 7
to 8% of greenhouse gasses and requires high energy input, thus leading to
using a substitute for cement hardening. Lastly, with a study conducted by Najm
& Balagru (2004 It was found out that in the different ways of hardening
concretes the cement content proved to have the most effect on how fast the
hardening process of the cement was.

Cement that is used everyday
for construction is known to have low durability properties, thus leading to early
decay and degradation. Supporting this claim is by a journal and study
conducted by Reddy & Omkar (2009) wherein it was concluded that in a short
amount of time, cement tends to break apart and form cracks within, which is
due to extreme conditions such as heat, wind, and water all happening at the
same time. It was also taken note of Jinhui et. al., (2011) that one of the
most common reason for the early decay and breakage of cement is the cement’s
paste fineness, in their methodology three types of cement paste were tested,
all in the aspect of the cement’s paste fineness. It was concluded that the
finer the cement paste is, the stronger or durable will the cement product be.

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However, in the same study conducted by Toma et, al., (2011) it was found out
that another property is said to be causing a huge amount of effect on the
durability properties of cement, and it was the type of sand used in the
cement. The data presentation and analysis of the study proved that the type of
sand used in the cement has a 30% effect on the cement’s durability properties.

However, the said study did not go any deeper into what specific properties of
sand affected the durability of cement. Even though the different journals or
study presented yielded different conclusions, it is still important to note
that cement really does have low durability properties for various reasons.

Common usage of cement even
with low durability properties is linked with higher risk of accidents in
different fields of construction. In a study conducted by Kodur (2014) wherein
cement was placed on elevated temperatures, the study concluded that cement was
much more common to form cracks within due to the intense heat, in a group of
cement placed in varying temperatures the result showed a 20% increase rate in
terms of cracking or decaying of the cement. It is important to note such
findings as it can greatly benefit and be a source of information to those
working on a substitute for hardening cement in the Philippines, which is in
the tropical region of the earth wherein intense heat may last for months
depending on the season the country is going through. In the same context a
study was conducted by Akbogá & Baradan (2015) One type of cement that is
commonly involved in infrastructure or construction related accidents are the
ready mixed concrete or cement. With different data showing that there were a
total of 4,251 fatal incidents concerning construction workers and 20% comes
from cement related accidents in the United States, however in other countries
such as Japan showed that 40% of fatal accidents are cement related, and 50% in
Ireland. The said data presented by the study is an alarming concern as the
numbers of accidents that is related to construction specifically cement are
too high, too many people are being put at risk due to the lack of durability
in poorly made cement leading to early decay and cracking which can really put
people’s lives in danger.

Construction company,
workers, and architects who uses poorly made cement paste or mixture is known
to be much more prone to accidents, this was supported by a study conducted by
Miao et. al., (2010) wherein the study focused on testing the weight barring
capacity of a cement bridge, it was found out that after a total weight of 800
kg, the cement bridge started show signs of cracking and was linked to the type
of cement used during the construction of the said bridge. Adding furthermore
information in the same context it was noted by Pannier et. al., (2008) that
another consequence of poorly made cement is the risk of endangering a person’s
health one of it is the risk of experiencing cement burn. Hazardous materials
or elements were found in all type of cement mixture such as calcium oxide
which known to be highly corrosive to human tissue and crystalline silica which
is known to damage the lungs if inhaled. The effects of poorly made cement to a
person’s health is alarming as people use it in their everyday life and knowing
that it can risk a person’s life calls for a new way of formulating cement.

Formulation of a new type of
cement mixture is now one of the top priority of construction workers,
architects, and engineers. In the data portion of a study conducted by Mikhailova
et.al., (2013) the incorporation of substitutes for cement hardening or
aggregate, which in this study is the usage of Dolomite Limestone Powder showed
that the durability properties or strength properties of the cement mixture
increased by as much as 13.7% after 28 days of testing, and after 2 months of
testing the cement durability properties still remained intact with low signs
of cracking. In the same field, a study conducted by Karasin & Dogruyol
(2014) which sought to improve the durability of cement in terms of sulfate
exposure, used a substitute cement hardening specifically fly ash brought an
18.7% increase in sulfate resisting capacity of the cement. With different
substitutes being used as cement hardening or aggregate, it is safe to say that
using these types of substitutes does affect the durability properties of
cement in a positive manner, however not all substitutes may display positive
effects, other may even lead to serious decay of the cement mainly because of
chemical composition that reacted negatively. However, it is important to note
that majority of these substitutes have shown positive feedback does being one
of the priority of architects, construction workers, and engineers.

There is a need to
investigate on finding alternatives for cement hardening or aggregate to
improve safety of its users, while at the same time conserving resources and
money. This is to be supported by a study done by Manzur et. al., (2009) as the
researchers used PET bottles as the substitute for cement hardening, and after
30 days of testing, the strength properties of the cement improved by 60% a
large number in increase that could be greatly beneficial as the number of PET
bottles being produced are also high. Something that is really important to note
is the usage of natural resources as the substitutes for cement aggregate, this
is proven by a study conducted by Shelke et, al., (2014) that used abaca fiber
as the substitute for cement aggregate actually showed a 36.51% increase in
durability properties of the cement that was tested, with this it is important
to take note that people should also consider using natural resources as the
substitute for cement aggregate as it is much more cheaper compared to other
substitutes used by different studies that was conducted. With the data coming
from the different study or journal conducted, it showed that the usage of
substitutes for cement aggregate increased the cement’s durability properties
while at the same time costing less for the manufacturers.

 

            Multiple
studies have identified the numerous negative effects of poorly made cement and
its corresponding causes. An exemplification of this is a study conducted by
Zhang (2017). Wherein it was found out through statistics that cement
production produces about 7% to 8% of greenhouse gasses. In the same field it
was found out that poorly made cement can also lead to human injuries, in a
study conducted by Akbaga & Baradan (2015) it presented that a total of
4,251 injuries are construction related. Due to this, construction workers or
engineers have prioritized looking for a substitute as cement aggregate.

In a study conducted by
Dhandania (2009) it was taken note of that the use of reinforced plastic as a
cement aggregate is due to its low cost, recyclability, non-corrosiveness, low
thermal conductivity, and high strength and low weight ratio. With the use of
these substitutes, it showed favorable outcome and results in the field of
construction. This is evident in the research study conducted by Savita et. al.,
(2007) wherein it was observed that multiple substitutes showed different
increase in strength properties with synthetic materials leading with 59.37%
increase, and PET with 37.65% increase.

In the same context, a study
by Najm & Balagru (2014) it was observed that in the different ways of
hardening concrete, the cement content proved to have the greatest effect on
how fast the hardening process of the cement was, and in the study by Jinhui
et. al., (2011) it was concluded that the aspect of cement fineness also proved
to increase the strength of the cement.

In connection, it was
observed in the study by Toma et. al., (2011) that the usage of sand in the
cement had 30% effect on the cement’s durability properties which is important
because it was known through the study done by Reddy & Omkar (2014) that
cement tends to break apart and form cracks within due to extreme conditions
such as heat and wind happening all at the same time.

In support to this, it was
also exemplified in the study by Kodur (2014) wherein it was found out that
cement that is placed in a higher temperature environment showed a 20% increase
rate in terms of cracking or decaying of the cement. Now with the increase in
usage of substitutes as cement aggregate, durability properties of cement has
risen which is exemplified in multiple studies.

In the study by Mikhailova
et. al., (2013) it was observed that with the usage of Dolomite Limestone as
cement aggregate, the strength properties of the cement mixture increased by as
much as 13.7% after 28 days of testing. In the same context, a study conducted
by Shelke et. al., (2014) it was taken note of that Abaca fibers as cement
aggregate showed an increase in durability properties by 36.51%

However, the experiments were
performed on the sole basis of finding out the increase in durability
properties, therefore we suspect that there are specific agents responsible for
the increase in the durability properties of cement just like in the study by
Karasin & Dogruyol (2014) wherein it was observed that the proportion of
the materials used in production proved to have a significant effect on the
durability properties of cement with some using the 40-30-10 proportion, while
others  just like the study done by Pons
(2008) wherein it was taken note of that the fineness of the cement mixture
proved to have a significant effect also at the durability properties of the
cement.

A considerable amount of
research has been made about multiple alternatives being used as a substitute
for cement aggregate or cement hardening Just like what is seen in the study
done by Mikhaeliova & Chartparpon (2010) wherein the researchers made use
of recycled materials as a substitute, and a study done by Garcia (2007)
wherein used bricks were used as an alternative but little research has focused
on the usage of natural products as an alternative for cement aggregate or
hardening. Moreover, it is important to dive in or to explore this aspect of
the different alternatives for cement aggregate as it can positively affect the
rate of usage of natural products for different purposes.

However, using the study done
Garcia (2007) it is not clear whether the use of recycled materials made a
significant effect on the durability properties of the cement or was it just
showing the same results or data shown by an ordinarily made bricks. Adding to
this, wherein a study by Loufandure (2007) used extended polystyrene however
just like the previous RRL it failed to concretely show evidence if the used
alternatives made a significant effect to the durability of the bricks made.

Thus, the need to focus more on a detailed exploration or research about the
usage of these substitutes as cement aggregate or hardening.

This research studies the
effect of coconut husk as an alternative for cement aggregate or hardening to
the durability properties of a brick through a comparison between commonly made
cement bricks and coconut husk reinforced cement bricks. A total of 60 bricks
will be used, 50 coconut husk reinforced bricks and 10 commonly made cement bricks.

Multiple tests will be done by the researchers such as Compressive strength
test, Efflorescense test, and Hardness test all with respect to the durability
properties of the bricks. The statistical test called Z Test for two sample
means will be used to asses all data that will be obtained and provide
quantitative measure. A community test will also be conducted at Camp Crame
High School to obtain data when the bricks are used in real life situation. The
gathering of data will be done for 2-3 weeks.