The to restore values of lipid peroxidation and xanthine

The toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon across the
living systems is now a common knowledge among the scientific community. What
is lacking is a mini-scale antidote that can be adopted by the inhabitants of
crude oil producing areas of the world. This was the reason for this study. The
study is comprised forty eight female Wister rats divided into six groups of
eight rats each. The rats were fed as flows: Group 1: (Control). Rats in group
2 and 3 were fed with diets treated with 5.0g and 10.0g oil palm leaf
respectively. Rats in group 4 were fed with crude oil contaminated diet (Crude
oil Control). Rats in groups 5 and 6 were fed with contaminated diet mixed with
ground oil palm leaf (5.0 g and 10.0 g respectively). After three and six
months exposure periods respectively, four rats from each group were sacrificed
and the kidney used to prepare supernatant needed for the determinations of lipid
peroxidation and xanthine oxidase activity. The results show that pretreatment
of crude oil contaminated diet with oil palm leaf tend to restore values of
lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase activity close to control values. Thus,
it is pertinent to state that there exist potentials in the use oil palm leaf
in the treatment of crude oil toxicity. And indeed setting a fresh agenda for
further serious scientific investigations




Keywords: Crude oil, Kidney, Lipid peroxidation, Oil
palm, .Xanthine oxidase,

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 1.0 Introduction

 Humans and animals get exposed to crude oil or
its byproducts when these chemicals are released into the surroundings during
oil exploration activities, equipment failures, corrosion, illegal bunkering,
usage, oil theft and illicit refining 1-3. Crude oil stimulates oxidative stress
in animals 4, 5. Lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase activity are part of
oxidative stress indices. Lipid peroxidation elicits oxidative damage in plants
and animals and its value in conjunction with alterations in the level of
antioxidants represent a measure of oxidative stress. Similarly, the activity
of xanthine oxidase is a defense mechanism as well as measure of oxidative stress
in animals 6. Report has it that the deleterious action of crude oil on the
kidney is based on oxidative stress 7.

 Byproducts of the oil palm tree are important
medicinally. This is because the leaf juice have wound healing property while
the sap is used as laxative 8.This is due to   compounds rich in medicinal and antioxidant
properties inherent in oil palm leaf 9, 10. 
The antioxidant action is attributed to the presence of phytochemicals (flavonoid,
tannin and phenols) in the leaves of oil palm tree 11. In fact, oil palm leaf
extract contains more antioxidative phenolic compounds than various green tea
extracts 12. Therefore, oil palm leaf extract is a potential source of
functional food ingredient, based on reports of its health benefit 13 .This
study is aimed at evaluating the protective potentials of oil palm leaf against
crude oil contaminated diet induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

2.0 Materials and methods

The crude oil used for this study was obtained from
Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) Warri, Delta State, Nigeria. The
palm leaf used was obtained from Elaeis guineensis tree in Obiaruku, Delta
state, Nigeria Forty eight (48) female albino wistar rats with weights ranging
from 0.088kg to 0.182 kg obtained from the animal house of Department of
Anatomy, Delta State University, Abraka were used for this study. The rats were
housed in a standard wooden cage made up of wire gauze, net and solid woods and
left to acclimatize for one week on grower’s marsh and tap water at laboratory temperature of 28o C and
12 hour day/ night regime. After the acclimatization period, the rats
were weighed and grouped.

2.1 Preparation of leaf powder.

leaves were isolated from the stock and sun- dried. The dried leaf was then
ground with domestic kitchen blender into a fine powder and stored in a clean
and sealed plastic container

2.2Treatment of animals

The forty eight (48) female albino wistar rats were
assigned to six (6) groups according to their weights, with eight rats in each
group. Rats in the control, Group 1 were fed with grower’s marsh only. Rats in
Group 2 were fed with grower’s marsh treated with 5g of powdered palm leaf.
Group 3 rats were fed with grower’s marsh treated 10g of powdered palm leaf.
Group 4 rats were fed with grower’s marsh contaminated with crude oil (4ml per
100g of feed).This concentration of crude oil in diet
was established by a pilot study to be tolerated by the rats over a long period.
Rats in Group 5 were fed grower’s marsh contaminated with crude oil (4ml per
100g of feed) plus 5g of powdered palm fronds. While rats in Group 6 were fed
with crude oil contaminated marsh (4ml per 100g of feed) plus 10g of powdered
palm leaves. The rats in each group were allowed access to clean drinking water
while the experiment lasted. The feeds were prepared fresh daily and stale feed
remnants were discarded regularly. The animals in each group were exposed to
their respective diets for three and six months respectively. The National Institute of health guide
for the care and use of laboratory animals (NIH, 1985) was adopted all through the experiment

2.3 Collection
of samples

After the first exposure period (three months), four rats
from each group were sacrificed and the kidneys were harvested. Five grams (5.0
g) of the kidneys were weighed in chilled conditions and homogenized with 5ml
of normal saline in a mortar. The mixture was diluted
with known amount of buffered saline before being centrifuged and the
supernatant was transferred into plastic tubes and stored at – 4o C before
used for analysis within forty eight hours. This same procedure was adopted
after six months exposure period.

2.4 Determination of lipid peroxidation and xanthine
oxidase activity

The activity of
xanthine oxidase in the kidney of rats was measured using the method of Bergmeyer
et. al. 14, based on the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid, a molecule that
absorbs light maximally at 290 nm. A unit of activity is that forming one
micromole of uric acid per minute at 25oC. Lipid peroxidation
in the kidney of rats was measured by the thiobarbituric acid reacting
substances TBARS, method of Gutteridge and Wilkins 15.

2.5Statistical Analysis

of variance (ANOVA) and post
Hoc Fisher’s test for multiple comparison was performed using statistical
package for social science (SPSS), version 20  to determine statistical significant
differences between means. P values