The the potential benefitsand existence of stem cells the

The research in the field of stem cells can be traced back to early 1900’s when Alexander Maksimov, aRussian histologist coined the term “stem cells”. Later in 1960 in an attempt to prove the potential benefitsand existence of stem cells the first breakthrough discovery was announced. Undeniably, mouse has been widelyused as a model organism in stem cell studies. Two Canadian researchers James Till and Ernest McCullochpioneered to prove that bone marrow possess stem cells . The study demonstrated the annihilation of thehematopoietic system in the mice by exposing them to high doses of radiation followed by which the bonemarrow cells were injected into some of the recipient system. The results showed that the newly transplantedbone marrow cells regenerated their hematopoietic system due to which the mice survived. In contrast to thissituation the recipients that failed to receive the transplant died during the experimental phase. It was observedthat in the later stages of recovery the recipient mouse developed small nodules on the spleen of the size thatwere proportional to the population of bone marrow cells received during the transplant process. The scientistsunderstood that these nodules originated from a single cell from the bone marrow transplant. As the researchprogressed the studies revealed that certain cells in bone marrow were capable of self-renewal as well asdifferentiating into specific cell lineages. Till and McCulloch’s studies laid the foundation to the basis forhuman bone marrow transplants, which are routinely performed today to treat several kinds of blood disordersincluding leukemia .It was in 1998, James Thompson, from the University of Wisconsin, isolated the inner cell mass ofprimary embryo and established the first embryonic stem cell lines. During the same period Gearhart, fromJohns Hopkins University, derived germ cells from fetal gonad tissue to develop pluripotent stem cell lines.Further in 1999 and 2000, scientists discovered that manipulating adult mouse tissues could yield different celltypes. This established that cells from bone marrow could produce nerve or liver cells and cells in the braincould also produce other cell types. These discoveries brought the field of stem cell research in to the limelight,with the word of superior scientific control on stem cell differentiation and proliferation. Stem cells from acancerous tumor was identified in 1997 when a research group from the University of Toronto injected a fewblood stem cells sample from human leukemia patients into mice model and observed leukemia progress in themice.Exploration in the field of stem cell continues to advance. Preliminary consequences from recentstudies support the ability of stem cells for steering basic research that lead to medical achievements in duecourse of time. Owing to this promise, in 2005, a study unwrapped the ability of human embryonic stem cells todifferentiate into active functioning nerve cells in mouse brain model. Scientists also achieved significantdevelopment in deriving pancreatic cells from adult stem cells. In 2006, scientists were able to derive embryonicstem cells from the morula phase of a mouse, and embryonic stem cells were first grown deprived of animalproducts in the culture. A compilation study of the experiments till date must be replicated and reliablydemonstrated by other researchers before the acceptation by the scientific community . The enormouspotential of regenerative medicine for refurbishing tissue or organ function thereby benefitting mankind hasbeen accredited by society by awarding the 2012 Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology to John Gurdon andShinya Yamanaka for the novel breakthrough research in developing iPSC through nuclear reprogramming.