The priorities are met (p31-32)”. Housing co-operative has been

The
urban population accounts for 76% of the total world population and it is
expected to increase to 4 billion people by 2030, and 2 billion people will be demanding
for housing by 2030. (UN-Habitat 2005). According to the United
Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat 2006), the number of slum
dwellers globally has been increasing from 715 million in 1991 to 998million in
2005 and is expected that by 2020 slum dwellers worldwide will hit 1.4 billion.
The most pressing problem facing the housing industry in the developing nations
in housing urban poor is shortfall of supply of sustainable housing over
demand.

According
to choguill, (2007) Sustainable housing refers to housing that must be technically
feasible, socially acceptable, economically viable and environmentally
compatible. According to Olotuah et al, (2009)  define sustainable housing  as  “the
gradual, continual and replicable process of meeting the housing needs of the
populace, the vast majority of who are the poor and are incapable of providing
adequately for themselves”.

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According
to Mitlin and Satterthwaite (1996) sustainable housing is  “shelter that is healthy, safe, affordable
and secure within a neighbourhood with provision of piped water, sanitation,
drainage, transport, healthcare, education and child development. It is also a
home protected from environmental hazards, including chemical pollution. Also
important are to meet needs related to people’s choice and control, including
homes and neighbours which they value and where their social and cultural
priorities are met (p31-32)”.

Housing
co-operative has been historically, still remains the preferred choice for
provision of sustainable housing for majority of low and middle income
household globally. For instance, housing co-operative have different models in
different countries, but what make them unique compared to other housing
providers is that they are jointly owned and democratically controlled by their
members, according to the principle of “one person, one vote”. This has clear
implications for the way they operate compared to other actors on the housing
market. Co-operatives benefit not only their members but also the wider public
interest.(ICA 2012)

Housing
co-operatives manage over 3.5 million dwellings in Poland approximately 27% of
the total housing stock in the country in 2009, In Turkey 25% of housing stock,
15%
in Norway and 2% of the United Kingdom’s housing stock is co-operative, 17% in
the Czech Republic and Sweden. On average, 10% of Europeans live in housing
co-operatives. (Karlyle, 2005)

Housing
co-operative is classified into two namely consumer co-operative and producer
co-operative .Further, housing co-operative is subdivided  into different types of tenure; Limited
housing co-operatives, multiple mortgage housing cooperatives and
Continuing housing co-operatives. Limited housing
co-operatives get land and give each member his/her plot by subdividing the land
on competition. Multiple mortgage housing cooperatives own and maintain the
common areas such as roads, paths, recreation areas and other community
facilities. Their members own their individual units and the land. Continuing
housing co-operatives owns all the land, houses and common areas. Members do
not own their units separately but they hold equal shares for all assets of the
society through their membership of the co-operative (UNCHS, 1999), but, housing
co-operatives in Kenya can be described as limited housing cooperatives since
co-operative members acquire dwellings in freehold ownership status after
completion of payment.

Although
Africa is the most rural region in the world, it is urbanizing fast and this
will place immense strain on sustainable housing provision in the coming decades.
For instance; between 2005 and 2010 Luanda grew by 1.2 million people, Kinshasa
by 1.6 million and Lagos by 1.8 million. In terms of proportional growth, Luanda
grew by 35%, Ouagadougou grew by 43.7%, and Abuja doubled in size by 51.7%, in
the same period. Urbanization rate differ from one country to another as
evidenced by Burundi where only 11% of the population lives in cities and only
13.3% in Uganda.  In contrast, 81.8 % of
the population in Western Sahara live in cities and 86% in Gabon. This means
that the demand for housing in Africa will keep on increasing than the supply.
As such, urgent and longtime solution is needed (UN-Habitat 2011)

Housing
co-operative in Kenya can be traced back to 1979 when the
umbrella organization for housing co-operative was formed called National
Cooperative Housing Union (NACHU) .NACHU’s primary objective is to provide
affordable and decent housing and infrastructure to the urban low and
modest-income communities, also provide microfinance products and services. NACHU
works with informal settlements, conventional housing and
commercial projects at improving the quality of life of low and moderate income
household of housing co-operative members (Sally et al, 2007)

Membership
of housing co-operative are drawn from various socio-economic groups across all
the sectors of the economy particularly low and middle income group. Housing
co-operative in Kenya are classified into two; consumer housing co-operative and
producer housing co-operative. In 2012 there were about 493 housing
co-operatives of the 550 registered were participating in Housing Scheme representing
11,708 individuals. 84% were low-income earners and 16% modest-income. (Sally
et al, 2007)