The eliminating Austria. It is worth noting that the

The Unification of Italy came about in a series of events, at times with the stated objective of uniting Italy due to a common nationalistic feeling. What led the process however, was the pragmatic approach of Count Camillo Cavour and the developed power of the Kingdom of Piedmont. The revolutionary prowess of Giuseppe Garibaldi who would not tolerate any concept of ‘Italy’ under Victor Emmanuel without the South.The Risorgimento was at the core an ideological movement which shifted national consciousness to an increasingly liberal and nationalist view. This paved the way for a sequence of events to occur which resulted in the unification of Italy and the move away from foreign control. Benedetto Croce characterise the Risorgimento ‘as a triumph for liberalism’. There is no doubt that Giuseppe Verdi was one of the greatest Italian composers of his era. His operas had ultimately become anthems for the recently unified nation of Italy. Hebrew Slaves (Va pensiero in italian), the chorus from the third act of his opera Nabucco, expressed the political desires of alot of intellectuals at the time.  When the revolution in Milan broke out he declared – “There must be only one music welcome to the ears of Italians in 1848. The music of the cannon!” which emphasizes the focus for a united Italy by eliminating Austria. It is worth noting that the letters of the name VERDI spell out the name of Victor Emmanuele Re D’Italia, the King of Sardinia, who in 1861, was the first to ascent to the throne of a unified nation since the 6th Century. The cultural developments during the Risorgmento however, did not manifest into any widespread national feeling during this time. When his opera Nabucco opened in 1842, the concept of ‘Italy’ was only expressed geographically. During the next two decades, this would be transformed.Briefly following the Treaty of Vienna of 1815, the end of Napoleonic Rule from 1800 to 1815, and the instillation of the Restored Monarchs to Italy, in 1820 – 1821, a series of Revolutions erupted throughout the peninsula, in an apparent aim to oust the monarchs, characteristic of repressive rule and economic devastation which were concerned at the potential for withdrawing the modernising reforms of the Napoleonic Rule, which arguably ‘laid the political, institutional, and ideological foundations of Italy’s unification and independence’. This can be viewed as a sign of national unity, these series of revolts and uprisings in states like Sicily, or Naples against the rule of King Ferdinand I of the Kingdom of Two Sicilies since, there was a constitutional basis to these revolts however, such as in Piedmont. Reactionary opposition to the government, from the Carbonari, and in collaboration with the revolutionaries in  Naples, and Lombardy, attempted to coordinate an orchestrated revolution throughout Italy, with the aim of ousting the Austrians rule and influence. The Austrian Empire provided the biggest obstruction to the unification of Italy. The Italian state of Lombardy and Venetia, were in the possession of Austria and the unification of Italy would only be possible if Austria was moved out of those states. However Italy did not have neither the huge and powerful army necessary nor the support of foreign powers, which meant that Austria couldn’t be removed. Through this, although failed due to repression, some level of initial national unity, at least from the liberal revolutionaries is indicated. However, most of the participants in these revolutions, had participated as a result of economic deprivation and devastation. The overall failure of these revolutions to provide a lasting constitutional settlement, however, was not the end of the revolutionary path of Italy. The Revolutions of 1848, came about as a result of a more developed sense of national identity and spirit, fuelled by individuals which would lead the struggle against monarchy, repression, and backwardness.The Revolutions of 1848, saw the rise of individuals such as Giuseppe Mazzini. A key figure in the construction of nationalistic political thought in Italy, since the organization of his group ‘Young Italy’, Mazzini has been described as the ‘shining star’ of the democratic revolutions of 1848. His objective of self-determination, led to the revolt against papal power in Rome, and gave rise to the Roman Republic of 1848. Although, due to French military intervention, the Pope was restored and the Republic was defeated, it demonstrates the extent of the aims of some of the revolutionaries during this period, and their attempt to defeat monarchism, and foster an Italian identity through democratic freedoms. A significant circumstance of the period of revolution during 1848 and 1849, was the initiative taken by Charles Albert of the Kingdom of Piedmont, to contest the influence of Austria militarily. Although a largely conservative monarch, he decided to take advantage of the spirit of revolt against Austria, and declared the Statuto of 1848. Promising an end to censorship, and a liberal political system, the development of Piedmont did not stop there. Urged by the Milanese, who had developed the most active resistance to the Austrians, Charles Albert declared war on Austria. This was an immense step, since it was the first time a monarch, had militarily decided to oppose Austrian rule and control in Italy. Although the war ended in defeat for the forces of Piedmont, the war itself had bolstered national feeling, and expectation. What it also did, was demonstrate the potential that Piedmont had, in leading the struggle against foreign intervention in Italy.Although initially, a conservative state itself, Piedmont developed into the potential to become the most liberal state in Italy. Following the adoption of the Statuto, and the creation of a ‘liberal haven’, Piedmont grew to become the most modernised, progressive, and economically vibrant state in Italy. These characteristics would help the leading figures in Piedmont, create a future for a United Italy, under Piedmontese guidance, and, eventually, control. First and foremost this need for a unified Italy was generated by both economic and social issues. Italy really needed to boost its economic development: trade expansion; entrepreneurship. Additionally because of industrialisation, in contrast with all the other European National States, every State in Italy not only had a different currency but also different weights and measures, different customs duty. This made the circulation of goods, transports and exchange not just difficult, but  to implement. The economic developments of Piedmont such as the adoption of free trade with Italian states, the growth of her industrial sector such as the Steel industry and Silk and Wool, facilitated an unprecedented growth, unlike any other Italian state at the time. This enabled an economic growth which would be then employed for military development.This was employed in the participation of Italy in the Crimean War of 1854 which earned Piedmont a position in the Congress of Paris, alongside the other major European powers. This was fundamental, since it allowed Count Camillo Cavour, to develop diplomatic links with France, and Napoleon III, in an attempt to get assistance to eliminate Austria. This came to fruition in the Plombieres Pact of 1858 where it was decided that Napoleon would help Piedmont, in exchange for Nice and Savoy, and the Pope as the head of a Confederation of Italy.During the Second Italian War of Independence (also known as Franco-Austrian War), Napoleon had decided to sue for peace, and effectively ended the war, through the Villafranca peace treaty. Napoleon signed an armistice with Austria in Villafranca in order to get out of war, since he knew that its terms would never come into effect due to France’s inefficiency. With Austrian territories returning to Sardinia and rulers of Central Italy being restored, Austria’s status as a great power on the European scene was now seriously challenged, and its influence in Italy severely weakened. Austria gave to France Lombardy, and it was evident that Italy would later on hand over Lombardy to Italy since they were allies. An Italian Confederation was to be formed under the presidency of the Pope; however, as a result of plebiscites urged by Britains Sir Palmerston, there was an overwhelming vote for unity with Piedmont under the leadership of Victor Emanuel. This treaty marked the beginning of Italy’s unification under Piedmontese leadership.Another obstructive element to the overall unification of Italy, was the division between the North and South of Italy. Cavour only wanted to unite the North of Italy under the Confederation of Northern Italy. The industrialised, modernised North. Revolutionaries, and Nationalists like Giuseppe Garibaldi, would not accept anything short of a unification of the whole of the Peninsula. Urged by the news that this homeland, Nice, had been handed over to France, he organized an army, and decided to capture the South, and hand it over to Victor Emmanuel. Garibaldi decided to give the South to Piedmont in a meeting he had with King Victor Emanuel II, in Teano, sixteen days after the bloody Battle of Solferino.In conclusion, the unification of Italy was a long and slow process that underwent many different stages. Cavour’s Nothern objectives clashed with Garibaldis aim to unite the whole of the Peninsula. Garibaldis expedition therefore, and Victor Emmanuels support, was a fundamental factor in the overall trajectory of Unification until 1861.