Slide 1: Title Screen (Food Waste)Alison: Good morning! My name is Alison, and this is Sofie, Sidratul and Scarlett. As part of our global perspectives group project, we decided to create a presentation as our outcome on the issue of food waste, in the hope of raising awareness and educating all of you on this prominent issue and its consequences. We hope you enjoy!Slide 2: What is Food WasteSofie: Before we start, we would like to ask all of you. What do you think food waste is? *audience replies* Where do you think the food you waste ends up? How can we stop wasting so much food? Who is the most responsible for food waste? Sidratul: People often get confused between food loss and food waste. Food loss typically refers to waste that takes place at the production, storage, processing, and distribution stages, and is particularity significant in developing countries where infrastructure is weak. However, food waste refers to food that is of good quality and perfectly healthy, but does not actually get consumed, like leftovers from dinner.Slide 3: Why should we care?Scarlett: What’s the big deal about us wasting food? How do the consequences of wasting huge amounts of food worldwide, impact us as people everyday, or our environment, such as the animals, habitats, trees, plants, and so on? Does anyone have any idea? *response* The United Nations has claimed that one in nine people worldwide do not have any access to sufficient food sources in order to live healthily. Every single day, more people die from hunger than AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis combined together. However, approximately one-third of the food that is produced in the world is wasted or lost due to a number of different reasons. Alison: Food waste is unethical, as the 800 million starving people on our planet, could be fed sufficiently with less than a quarter of the food wasted in the UK, US and Europe every year. Additionally, food waste has detrimental effects on the environment, such as deforestation, the endangerment of species, the forced migration of natives and soil degradation, all to produce land to grow food which is then wasted anyway. On top of that, all the resources which have gone into producing the uneaten food such as energy, water, land and labour are wasted when food ends up in a landfill.Slide 4: Food Waste in HKSofie: According to a report, “Monitoring of Solid Waste in Hong Kong – Waste Statistics for 2015″, food waste in landfills in 2015 amounted to 33 percent of all solid waste. Despite this, food waste was down by 7.1 per cent year-on-year. Hong Kong’s Environmental Protection Department says the government hopes to cut food waste dumped in landfills by 40 percent by 2022. It has launched campaigns encouraging customers to order less in restaurants and recognises those hotels and restaurants that have attempted to cut down on the food waste they produce and donate leftovers to NGOs such as Food Angel and Feeding Hong Kong. Sidratul: Despite all the positive steps towards reducing food waste in Hong Kong, recycling food waste is not a habit in HK, especially in comparison to places like Taiwan and Japan where it is a priority. Hong Kong based restaurant ‘Mana! Fast Slow Food’, a small, environmentally conscious, vegetarian restaurant claims to generate 1.5 tonnes of food scraps and waste every month alone. If this is true, just imagine how much all of Hong Kong’s estimated 11.000 restaurants are generating. Scarlett: Almost half of low-income families living in Hong Kong are deprived of consistent access to adequate food or ‘food insecure’. Despite this, everyday, we throw away over 3,600 tonnes of food waste. Excessive food waste in Hong Kong could partly be due to the Hong Kong culture, as we are taught that, as good hosts, we should always order more than we can finish. This ‘an empty plate equals a bad host’ mentality holds true at home as well, and we often buy and prepare too much to ensure our family is well-fed. Slide 5: Food Waste in KoreaAlison: Unlike Hong Kong, Korea has taken a number of measures to prevent food waste. The government in Korea has been running a recycling program and the recycling rate of Korea increased from 2% in 1995 to 95% in 2009. The food that would usually end up wasted in a landfill is now being recycled. This waste is being turned into compost, biomass and biofuels and livestock are being fed.Sofie: The Korean government had been funding the expansion of the public recycling services that are currently available and as mentioned earlier these facilities turn waste into into compost and other useful products. Currently worldwide, the methods that Korea has been working on have improved the food waste system and the advanced policies being used by the government have proved to be working. Additionally, Korea has been promoting their sustainable solution with other countries around the world. Slide 6: Causes of Food WasteSidratul: There are a number reasons for citizens to produce food waste such as how the productivity and efficiency of food production affect the rate of food loss, how much food people buy in supermarkets and the failure to consume it before the expiry dates. Furthermore, in low income countries, women are often the main actors in agriculture, post-harvest handling and marketing and social barriers will block their involvement in the process. Scarlett: Moving on to mid and high income countries, the main cause of food waste will predictably be the consumer’s behavior, and their practices like not taking the leftovers home if they’re not finished in the restaurant or ordering too much dishes knowing that they won’t be able to finish it. On government’s point of view, their food quality standard will be higher as the country can afford it. Those labels’ standard will prevent those citizens form consuming the food that may still be safe for human consumption but expired, leading to food waste. Slide 7: ConsequencesAlison: Food waste has a significant impact on many different factors, including climate, water, land and biodiversity. Every year, 1.3 billion tons of food causes massive economic losses and lots of unnecessary hunger. For example, the carbon footprint of food produced and not eaten is estimated at 3.3 billion tons of greenhouse gases, making food wastage the third top Greenhouse gas emitter after the United States and China. Sofie: On top of that, the blue water footprint, also known as the consumption of surface and groundwater resources of food wastage is about 250 cubic kilometers. Furthermore, nearly 30% of the world’s agricultural land area, 1.4 billion hectares of land is occupied by produced but uneaten food. As well as that 54% of food wastage actually occurs ‘upstream’ during production, post-harvest handling and storage, yet only 46% of it happens ”downstream” at the processing, distribution and consumption stages. Slide 8: Cultural PerspectivesSidratul: We created a survey in order to conduct our own primary research into the different perspectives of those living in Korea and those living in Hong Kong. Scarlett: The majority of the respondents living in Korea, exactly 50%, felt that in order to implement change and improve the current food waste situation, consumers need to take more responsibility for their food purchases by buying produce in smaller quantities and only food they believe will be eaten. Contrastingly, the majority of the respondents living in Hong Kong, again 50%, felt better recycling scenes should be implemented by governments to ensure that less food ends up in landfills which can have detrimental effects on the environment. Alison: From this data we can perhaps infer that due to the innovative recycling schemes put in place by the Korean government, the consumers in Korea are responsible for limiting food waste. Those in Hong Kong felt like the government needs to adapt and make changes in order to limit food waste, and the responsibility for the large levels of food waste in Hong Kong falls on the government more than it does the consumers. Sofie: All the Korean respondents claimed that their parents did attempt to educate them about food waste and encourage them not to waste food. This appears to be a value deep rooted in their culture and consequently may be a contributing factor to the lower levels of food waste in Korea. In contrast, 23% of respondents living in Hong Kong had parents who did not attempt to discourage them from wasting food. This is perhaps representative of the disparity between the two cultures and again could contribute to the high levels of food waste in Hong Kong. Sidratul: Furthermore, a meagre 4% of the respondents from Hong Kong thought that food waste was not a big issue in comparison to 33% of the Korean respondents. This may suggest that those living in Hong Kong are aware of the severity of this issue, yet don’t have the strategies or means of implementing change. Additionally, this points the blame towards the government who aren’t providing the consumers with ways to limit their food waste. Scarlet: Additionally, 33% of the Koreans throw their food away in another way that isn’t simply throwing it in the bin, for example by composting it, feeding the leftovers to pets and so on. Moreover, 16% of the respondents from Hong Kong throw food away using a means that isn’t throwing it in the bin. As food that is thrown in the bin ends up in a landfill, which has detrimental effects on the environment, the fact that Koreans are finding alternate ways of disposing of leftover food, again demonstrates how Korea is doing better than Hong Kong in its attempts to limit food waste. Slide 9: WIS CanteenAlison: We interviewed one of West Island’s canteen employees who has been working at the school for over 10 years and is consequently well aware of the workings of West Island’s canteens. He informed us that fortunately, the majority of food is sold to students, as they have an efficient food ordering system that effectively matches supply with demand. If there is a surplus, they donate the leftovers to a Hong Kong based organisation called Foodlink. Yet, certain foods such as curries must be thrown away if they are not bought and consumed within the day as there are various chemicals used to produce curries that mean the food after a period of time become unsuitable for consumption.Sofie: In terms of his personal views on how to further implement improvements, he believes that because they are aware of the severity of this issue, the next step is for them to know how many students are going to buy the food in order to prepare the correct amounts of each dish. Lastly, he believes that although the Hong Kong government is attempting to educate its citizens on this issue, predominantly restaurant owners, there is still a lot of room for improvement. Slide 10: Feeding HK ChairwomanSidratul: We interviewed the chairwoman of Feeding Hong Kong, she informed us of some her habits and things she does in order to limit food waste in her daily life. Firstly, she disposes of her wasted food by composting it, which is quite unorthodox for somebody living in Hong Kong. Composting offers many benefits to other methods of waste disposal that could potentially harm the environment, as it returns valuable nutrients to the soil. Scarlett: Additionally, she claims that if she is unable to finishes food at restaurant, she always takes the leftovers home. These are a few tips and techniques that you could use to limit food waste in your everyday lives. Slide 11: How can you help?Alison: Now, for the most important slide of the whole presentation. In order to reduce the amount of food wasted, planning, prepping and storing food can significantly help reduce food waste in your household. In terms of planning, which is mainly aimed at parents or adults who are in charge of buying groceries, simply make a short list with weekly meals in mind, so you can save money, time and eat healthier food. Look in your refrigerators and food cupboards in order to avoid buying food you already have, then make a list of what needs to be used up each week, and make sure to only buy what you need and what you will use. This includes making your shopping list depending on doods you already enjou, how many meals you’ll eat at home. Buying in bulk will only save money if you are able to use the food before it spoils.Sofie: Now onto the next criteria, storing food. Since it’s easy to overbuy or forget about fresh fruits and vegetables once already bought, storing fruits to maximise freshness will ensure better tasting and longer lasting foods, helping you to eat more of them. First conduct some research on how to store specific foods and vegetables so they stay fresh longer inside or outside of your refrigerator. For example, freeze, preserve or can fruits and vegetables, or wait to wash berries until you want to eat them to prevent mold. Sidratul: Preparing perishable foods soon after shopping will make it easier to whip up meals or snacks later in the week, saving time, effort and money. As soon as you get home, take time to wash, dry, chop and place your fresh food items in containers for snacks and easy cooking. Scarlett: Finally, be mindful of old ingredients and leftovers that need to be used up. You’ll waste less and maybe find a new and exciting dish. At restaurants, only order what you can finish by asking about portion sizes, and take home the leftovers and keep them for or to make your next meal.