Relationship Between Domain Names and IP Addresses
A domain name is a linkage string which defines a jurisdiction
of administrative self-rule, sanction or limitation within the Internet. Domain
names are defined by the protocols and directives of the Domain Name System
(DNS). Any name registered in the DNS is a domain name. Domain names are used
in various networking contexts and application-specific nomenclature and
addressing tenacities. In general, a domain name represents an Internet Protocol
(IP) resource, such as a computer used to access the Internet, a web-server
hosting a web site, or the web site itself or any other service presented via
the Internet. In 2017, 330.6 million domain names had been registered across
Domain names are systematized on the secondary
levels i.e. subdomains of the DNS root domain, which is unnamed. The primary set
of domain names are the top-level domains (TLDs), including the generic
top-level domains (gTLDs), which include the most famous domains like the .com,
.info, .net, .edu, and .org, and the country code top-level domains (ccTLDs)
like co.in, .co.uk, etc. Beyond these TLD’s in the DNS hierarchy are the secondary
and tertiary domain names that are typically open for reservation by end-users which
would be used to connect local area networks LAN to the Internet, or to create
other publicly accessible Internet resources or run web sites.
The registration of these domain names is governed by
domain name registrars who sell the Domain names along with other services associated
with it to the public.
An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a
numerical tag assigned to each Device which may be a computer, server, network,
storage, mobile or any IT appliance which is connected to a network of
computing devices and servers which use an Internet Protocol for communication
amongst each other within the network. An IP address serves two principal
functions: network interface identification and location tracing.
Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) which is the
older version of the 2, defines an IP address as a 32-bit number. However,
because of the rapid growth of the Internet users as well as devices and the exhausting
supply of available IPv4 addresses, a new version of IP (IPv6), using 128 bits
for the IP address, was developed in 1995, and standardized as RFC 2460 in
1998. IPv6 deployment has been ongoing since the mid-2000s.
IP addresses are usually mentioned and demonstrated
in human-readable notations, such as 18.104.22.168 in IPv4, and 2400:5300:0:b::51
in IPv6. The IP address space is administered globally by the Internet Assigned
Numbers Authority (IANA), and by five regional Internet registries (RIR) in
charge for their predefined geographical territories for assignment of IP
address to end users and Internet service providers. IPv4 addresses are
circulated by IANA to the RIRs in slabs of approximately 16.8 million IP addresses
each. Each Internet Service Provider or local network administrator needs to assign
an IP address to each machine (PC or Server) connected within its network
onfiguration. Such assignments may be on a static (permanently assigned) or
dynamic basis, depending on its software and practices.
An IP address helps with two primary functions,
firstly it identifies the host’s network interface, and it provides the
location of it in the IT network, and thus ensuring the ability of addressing
that host. The role has been described as follows: A name description indicates
what it is & the address indicates the location of it lastly the route
indicates how to reach there.
The intent of the new design was not only to deliver
a sufficient quantity of IP addresses, but also redefine routing in the
Internet by more competent aggregation of subnetwork routing prefixes. This
resulted in decelerated growth of routing tables in routers.
IP addresses are allocated to a machine or device either
automatically allocating a dynamic IP at the time of booting, or perpetually by
static configuration of the host’s hardware or software. Insistent
configuration is also known as using a static IP address. In contrast, when a
computer’s IP address is allocated afresh each time it restarts, this is
dynamic IP address allocation.
The configuration of a static IP address is subject
to the software or hardware installed in the machine. Servers used for the
network infrastructure, such as routers and mail servers, are typically
configured with static addressing. The primary reason is Static addresses are always
convenient for locating servers inside an enterprise, therefore in critical
times like trouble shooting the location tracing of the server becomes expedient.
Dynamic IP addresses are allocated using techniques
such as Zero-configuration networking for self-configuration, or by the Dynamic
Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) & Domain Name System (DNS) from a
network server. The address allocated with DHCP has an expiration phase, after
which the IP address would be assigned to another device, or to the original connected
host in case if it is still powered. A network administrator may implement a
DHCP method so that the same host always receives a specific address.
Domain names are assigned to an IP address, which
is used in the communication with the PC Server. Domain names are words,
alphabets with other elements like the TLD or the gTLD’s which are separated from
each other using full-stops. For example, the name of the domain is ESDS or
Host but when the TLD like .co.in is attached with it then it becomes a valid
domain name. The .co.in is the country level domain. Some other top-level
domains are .com, .edu for education, .gov for government, .net for network,
and .org for nonprofit organizations.
Other top-level domains are for geographic
locations, such as .us for the United States, .ca for Canada, .co.in for India and
.uk for United Kingdom. Within a country, mid-level domains may be used to
further refine the address. The remainder of the address for both domains is up
for sale. InterNIC is the organization currently responsible for managing the
.com and .net top-level domains. Organizations can request for any name and it
can be granted permission to use that name if it is not in registered or
allocated to anyone else on the internet; and also as long as they pay the
appropriate registration fees.
Its mandatory that all information sent on the
Internet must use a valid IP address, this process is a mandate which will
translate a domain name into an IP address. This mandate is defined a Domain
Name Server or DNS as its most popularly known. The DNS interconnects a domain
name with the allocated IP and returns a valid IP address when a domain is
called for in the internet. If your PC is connected to the Internet, it either
has a fixed IP address of a DNS or a IP address is allocated dynamically whenever
a connection is established, via a modem or when the computer is first turned
For more information on Domain names or in case you
wish you buy a domain then you can visit www.host.co.in.