Question is a human creation. It is an economic

Question 1.  Marx is a
modernist in his thinking – the way it carries a progressive theoretical and
analytic value. There were two ways he executed “modernity”: the way he redefined
the world, its social order, and political-economy, and the way he introduced
Communism. When Marx released The Communist Manifesto in 1848, he was the torch
of progressive thinking in the midst of a democratic revolutions upsurge in
London, in a society that has been enslaved to the existing traditional society
and conservative politics. There are four “modern” aspects of his political. First, Marx believed that Capitalism is
a human creation. It is an economic system that exists as a historical stage
supported by class differentiation. To him, all history is driven by conflicts
between differences of people, the proletarians and bourgeoisies. Through them,
the “capitalist mode of production” is built on three components: free labor,
capital, and accumulation. When these components are destroyed, the capitalist
mode of production and class differentiation will eventually cease. A society
under capitalism is merely a mode of production to increase the singular goal
of “capital”. Once achieved, it will eventually die as a historical stage in
the evolution of the economic system into a classless society. This notion was
extremely modernist in his time, as existing political-economy theories were
among the classical ideals from Adam Smith and John Stuart Mill championing
“free will” as individual perfection. Marx aimed to challenge “free will” as
both a blessing and a curse under the economic patterns in capitalist mode of
production.  Building on the notion that
free will is both a blessing and a curse, the second modern aspect in Marx’s political theory is the redefined
notion of “free labor”. The class differentiation between proletarians and
bourgeoisies is driven by ownership of property. To Marx, those who own
property own the means of production, which makes one a capitalist; those who
do not own property (or only private property) are those who are “free” from
the means of production and thus free labor. As a result, the capitalists are
those who are in a position to hire those who are deprived of means of
production – those who are “free”. Marx expressed great ambivalence towards
this freedom from property. Like chaos
midst instability, free labors are being forced to sell labor to capitalists to
earn a living. This is a degradation of labor and human value. However, this also
produces a tremendous amount of vital energy due to the true value of labor
power. Free labor, as a result, must suffer before the evolution of the
economic system into a classless society. This notion is modern because unlike
classical political theories that focuses on individual perfection, Marx
focuses on class division and class perfection. The third modern aspect in his political theory is the Fetishism of
Commodities. Instead of a society driven by “self-interest”, Marx believes
commodities to be the dominating force under Capitalism. Commodities is the
very relation between free labor and capitalists, object endowed by human
beings to have meaning and tremendous power. Like capitalism, commodities are
also a human creation. To him, we live in a world where we treat commodities
like people and people like commodities. The capitalist society turns labor
into a “commodity” where the misery of the worker is inversely proportional to
the power and volume of his production. The commodity in which labor creates
stands in an independent and respectable power in a capitalist society,
opposite to him and his very own value and worth. The fourth modern aspect of Marx’s political theory is the ultimate
solution to a dirty capitalist society: Communistic revolution. Marx believes
that ultimately, proletarians will realize their true worth and “let the ruling
class tremble” (186). Marx’s Communism is a class war that leads to a classless
society where property is publicly owned, each person works to his needs, and
all alienations between a worker and his product, nature, relationships, and
himself will end. This modern economic theory ultimately sets to destroy
politics, government, unequal distribution of “capital”, and the orientations
of labor.

Question 3. To Marx, a capitalist economy tends to generate
deficits of meaning for their society through four kinds of alienations-
nature, product of labor, other men, and labor himself. These alienations are
replaced by Fetishism of Commodities in a capitalist economy where commodities
are treated like people, and people like commodities. When a worker is placed
into the mode of production, he is turned into a commodity himself where his
value is from the labor power he possesses. However, this power does not bring freedom. His commoditized
labor power first alienates him from nature, where he is held captive in the
sphere of production instead of the world in which he should experience. In the
sphere of production owned by capitalist, the worker experiences deep
misgivings and human intervention forced onto him. He is without thought nor
individualism, he is without nature as he only has access to the world that is
production. His labor also alienates him from the product of his labor. In the
sphere of production owned by capitalists, the labor puts his labor power into
the commodity – yet he cannot claim ownership of his product as the capitalist
expropriates his product of labor. The object he creates stands opposite to him
and as a result, his labor power does not spray spontaneously from within as a
natural active creativity but rather exist outside of himself and signifies a
loss of meaning. The third alienation is the worker’s alienation from human
relationship and other men. Under the system of private ownership powered by
capitalists, men judges’ men based on how he invests his life in his work. The
worker sees other men, who are capitalists, as alien and hostile. He becomes
antagonistic toward the capitalist system of private property and further
alienates himself from not only capitalists but also those who are like him in
the society. Lastly, the capitalist economy will generate deficit of meaning by
alienating men from himself. For the worker, work amounts to life purpose. Through
the division of labor, the worker is estranged from his true identity and worth
as he is degraded to a commodity and an animal, without any unique gift of
thought nor creativity. At last, under the capitalist economy, men lose meaning
to nature, production, relationships, and his own identity. And in place of the
deficit of meaning, the capitalist society devises a formula for the function
of society and economic utility. Relationship is no longer characterized by
purpose, but the ends of the means in which commodities dictate social
interactions and economic transactions. The circulation of commodities governs
nature, product of labor, relationships, and identity. Social interactions and
economic transactions are stimulated by three different formulas where “value”
is redefined: C-M-C, M-C-M, and M-C-M’. Under C-M-C, commodities are being sold
for money, which then produces commodities. This transaction refers to
“use-value”, where the consequence of the transaction is consumption, rather
than circulation and translation. On the other hand, under M-C-M, the intention
of the transaction is to exchange commodities where they are exchanged for
their equivalent value. Those
commodities in this economic transaction possess the so-called “exchange-value”.

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While this model instigates the relationship between commodities, it does not
suffice the ultimate goal of a capitalist society: accumulation. Accumulation
is the build-up of capital, starting with the fetishism of commodities where
meaning is given to profit by human design. Under M-C-M’, the intention of the
transaction is to make profit by
translating money into more money through exchange of commodities for non-equivalent value. This creates
“surplus-value” where a capitalist buys cheap and sells dear. Unlike the
commodities in other forms of exchange, the commodity that circulates in this
mode of exchange is labor power. The capitalist exploits the worker in the
sphere of production to force profit where he expropriates the product of labor
for his own enrichment to exchange for more commodities. At last, this design
alienates labor from his product, his power, and his connections with the world
where he eventually loses meaning in his sense of identity and the wholeness of
human experience.