“‘Overpopulation…is matter in developing areas like Southern Asia, such

“‘Overpopulation…is the elephant in the room,’… ‘We don’t talk about overpopulation because of the real fears from the past–of racism, eugenics, colonialism…” (Whitty). Overpopulation is “the condition of having a population so dense as to cause environmental deterioration, an impaired quality of life, or a population crash” (“Overpopulation”). The issue is silently pushing environmental problems such as, deforestation, global warming, pollution, increase of price due to the decrease of resources, amongst many more to occur at a quicker rate. It is very likely that a densely populated region becomes sparsely populated if the area cannot sustain life. The topic has become something that can no longer be ignored. It is a very important matter in developing areas like Southern Asia, such as Bangladesh and India, and all throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. On the contrary, overpopulation has also become a major problem in developed areas, such as Australia and the United Kingdom, due to factors like immigration, and is spreading rapidly to other parts. So, is overpopulation something we should really be concerned about or is it just another over exaggeration?Section I: Arguments That Overpopulation is Real and What Started It? The theory of overpopulation dates back to Thomas Robert Malthus, an English scholar who was influential in the political economy and demography fields. In 1798, Malthus wrote “An Essay on the Principle of Population”, which discussed and examined the relationship between resources and the growth of population. His theory was that as population growth increases, it has a positive relationship with birth rate and it occurs exponentially. Malthus believed that if people, especially the poor ones, did not stop having many babies, then “‘premature death would visit mankind'” (O’Neill). He came to the conclusion that the increase in demand for food would “outstrip” our ability to produce it, which would ultimately lead to diseases and many deaths (O’Neill).Others have also agreed with his theory and believe that the only known solution to the “ecological overshoot” was “to decelerate our population growth faster than it’s decelerating now and eventually reverse it– at the same time we slow and eventually reverse the rate at which we consume the planet’s resources” (Whitty).  Contrary to popular belief, more and more developed countries are facing the effects of overpopulation; England is one of them and more and more people are starting to notice the growth. The main reason for it is because people are leaving their poor countries for a better socially and economically stable country. However, the amount of people immigrating is being noticed all throughout daily activities like going to work; there has been an increasing death rate on the highways– not due to reckless driving– but due to how jampacked the roads are getting. The average speed the people can drive at on the highways is “now lower than eight miles per hour” (Liddle). Besides traffic, parks that people would bring their kids to play in or to just walk in have now been turned into “densely packed Barratt Homes” (Liddle). Lastly, people are not able to do simple tasks. For example, watering the garden has become quite an impossible task to accomplish because there is not enough water to go around to everyone.Developing countries are poor countries that seek to become more advanced socially and economically. A major problem for why the women in these countries could not control their births was because they did not have the contraceptives available to them. It is often seen that in some countries in Africa, Southern Asia and others, the women have many kids due to it being a part of their culture, which is why people believe that if birth control methods were made more available to the women of these areas, it would stabilize the population greatly. Additionally, most developing nations are not able to educate their people, meaning they have little to no knowledge on proper family planning. The population is living below the poverty line in devastating conditions and many families want their children to get married at an early age, which also increases the chances of producing more kids.On the other hand, in more recent times, the main reason for the increase of population is not due to women in developing countries giving birth to children; rather it is due to the advances in medical care which has decreased infant mortality drastically. More babies living is a good thing, but since many of them are being born now, it has caused an uproar between people because it has become a never ending cycle of people dying and being born.The side less focused on is the father/male figure in the family; it has been noted that population will never really be stable, unless the men step up and share the responsibilities the women have (Sachs). “According to a recent study in Barbados, of 333 fathers with eight-year-old children, only 22 percent were still living with their child, and the children of the fathers who stayed were doing significantly better in school than all the others” (Sachs). Society has always expected women to take the responsibility for raising a family whereas men are not expected to handle raising a child and making money to be able to live comfortably (Sachs). If people want to see changes then “the essential common factor is to make family planning and other reproductive health services freely available to everyone” (Attenborough). Furthermore, research highly suggests that the family size and welfare depend on the interactions between the mother and the father; men who pay more attention to their partner’s/spouse’s concerns also pay attention to their family’s concerns (Sachs). However, it has also been noted that men use the sexual interaction as a way to fill their desires and control “their” women. Men in Ghana, when interviewed, all stated bluntly that “the woman has no right to choose the number of children she prefers”; rather it is the man’s choice because he is the one who decides to have sex with her (Sachs). Because of this, many advocates for women’s and children’s welfare use family planning to address the irresponsibility of the men, and many family planning organizations have been providing women with “safe, appropriate contraception” to educate the men (Sachs).With the child birth rate going up in these developing countries, the mortality rate may be increasing along with it. Many of the developing regions deal with natural disasters that destroy their crops and soil; the drought in Somalia and the Somali region of Ethiopia and conflicts in other countries are the “main drivers of acute food insecurity” (“About 76 mln”).They are already in poverty and do not have as much resources in the first place, so when earthquakes, droughts, hurricanes, and tsunamis do occur, everything they once had is gone. The soil becomes depleted, meaning nutrients and biological diversity is removed, and it becomes useless. The amount of rainfall can affect the salinization of soil as well because the water contains dissolved salts; it limits the growth of the crops due to most crops being extremely sensitive to salinity and it dries them out, which destroys them further.As a result of crops being destroyed, farmers are not able to trade which means the country is not getting their resources and the money they need in order to survive and keep the economy up and running.Donor countries would do Africa, Asia, and Central America, as well as the rest of the world a lot of good if they focused less on shipping expensive food aid from Europe and the United States and focused much more on helping farmers gain access to the inputs they need for higher productivity…At the same time, the rich countries should stop diverting their food crops and the food-growing land for biofuel production… (Samuel).The poor populations are very vulnerable to health problems rather than the rich and without having the resources and essentials, many people are dying due to famines and pandemic diseases because of their malnutrition (Samuel). There is an inadequate supply of fresh water which affects human life and agricultural life and there is a major threat to “human and aquatic biota” due to surface water being poorly kept (Pimentel and Wilson). Overpopulation is destroying our world in a domino effect in that as one thing is being destroyed, the rest of our earth goes down with it. Our environment is being affected in a detrimental way in that many forests are being destroyed at rapid rates to make more areas for habitation. Deforestation is dangerous to the environment because it adds to our already existing problem of global warming,”because trees naturally absorb carbon dioxide” from the atmosphere, and it is destroying the natural habitat of animals and plants, as well as destroying the ecosystem, to make more land for other humans (“Human Population”). The largest human population growth problem is global warming. Although there are many causes of global warming, overpopulation affects it the most and scientists are fearing that in the long run, global warming will lead to sea level rises and extreme weather conditions (“Human Population”). Furthermore, “the energy production (via power plants and coal burning) that is needed to support human life is increasing the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, which can lead to rising global temperatures” (“Human Population”).Section II: Arguments That Overpopulation is Over Exaggerated and Why? While there may be many who agree that overpopulation is a real issue, there are still those other people who disagree and believe that it is over exaggerated. The people point out that the theories spread by Thomas Robert Malthus and by Paul R. Ehrlich in The Population Bomb were all wrong. Both warned millions of people that we were all going to die from starvation and not having enough resources to live. Despite being able to persuade many, those theories were only threats and false alarms because they did not end up happening (Thomson). The majority of those people believe the whole theory of overpopulation is absolutely wrong and that all the points being made are wrong. “It ignores the fact that environmental damage is caused not in meeting human needs, but in maximizing profits. Under capitalism, production is based upon profit, not the needs of humanity” (Cheeseman). In a world where a majority of people believe that the world is dying, the others believe it is being killed, meaning it is intentional. It is being killed by a “mad economic system” that puts profits above everything else and as long as we live as a capitalistic society, our environment will continue to suffer (Cheeseman). Many are arguing that overpopulation leads to racism and and becomes a game of faulting others and ourselves as the root of overpopulation instead of the capitalist system itself (Cheeseman). There is also the issue that we are not consuming all of our finite natural resources and the proof is shown throughout the prices of the resources.The costs of minerals and other raw materials indicate that we are not running short of these resources….chromium, copper, nickel, tin, and tungsten and others they left out…became cheaper. Moffett comments that improved methods of detecting mineral reserves ensured that mineral reserves increased despite ever-increasing demand for these resources (Eapen).In economics, if there is a high demand for products there is a chance that the supply may be low and they may not be able to meet the expectations of the people and we do not reach our full potential. However, this is not the case because mineral reserves and materials have increased if anything and when there is a high supply but not a high demand, prices go down; we, in fact, have a surplus of these “finite resources”.Without doubt, many people prefer to move to developed countries such as Australia, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and much more. The best facilities are available in these regions in terms of economy, employment, education, security, and doctors. Many of the people who were originally tourists became so infatuated with the cities and made the decision to move. Due to the immigration, it has reflected very greatly in their infrastructure, resources, amongst much more. Immigration to developed countries is actually seen a good thing compared to the other regions that are living in terrible conditions. People are fleeing the poverty of their countries in order to make a living for themselves and live their dreams. The three main points as to why more and more people are moving to Australia is because it is a great place to raise children and ranked third overall out of 159 countries, quality of life is better, and employment earnings are stronger in Australia than in their country (“Our Blind Spot”). With such a massive amount of people immigrating to Australia, the country must be prepared economically to be able to accommodate each and every person/family.While many may think that immigration is just making the overpopulation problem worse, immigration is actually an essential for developed economies. Immigration leads to a labor force growth, which employs many workers, increases the Gross Domestic Product, and has “helped the United States avoid the fate of stagnant economies created by purely demographic forces” (Anderson). Furthermore, immigration increases the human capital in physical labor, such as construction, and mental labor, plans to build. The increase of human capital with boost the nation’s capacity “for innovation and technological change” (Anderson).Section III: Evaluating Each Side of the Argument: Saying that overpopulation is exaggerated and not real at all is being ignorant. The opposing side does make good points in that yes, we live in a very capitalistic world that only cares about maximizing profits; yes, immigration may be a really good addition for the economy; and yes, we have made medical advances to decrease the rate of infant mortality, but that cannot possibly outweigh the major life changes the world is going through. We are living in a world where people say they will make a change, but it is all talk. Ever since we were born we have heard about people in developing countries such as, Bangladesh and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, living in terrible conditions due to overcrowding. The Congo is known as one of the poorest countries in Africa, yet it’s population is 80 million (Nag). People are living in slums where they are crammed together in order to try and live; at that point it’s not living, it’s a game of survival. The people are dying from diseases since they do not have the proper vaccines to cure them, due to the country being so poor. Our environment is also having a hard time keeping up with the increase of population. While we may have enough of some resources like copper and tin due to the cost being so low, it is not something we need at the moment. Those resources are not vital for survival; freshwater is becoming scarce which is more important than copper ever will be. In addition, forests are being removed in order to make more housing space available for humans, but it is destroying the habitats of animals and plants. It is also causing species to become extinct which disrupts the overall cycle of all animals and plants. We are also dealing with a dangerous climate change that creates a loss of ecosystems amongst much more. If the trend continues, who’s to say that the outcome won’t be worse? Is this really a future we want for, not only us, but planet Earth as well?Section IV: Will it ever get better? What is the prospect for the future?Recently, more and more steps are being taken to slow down the growth of population. Globally, fertility rates have declined due to contraceptives being more obtainable, more advanced hospitals, and more women being reluctant to having kids because of the increased standard of living (Whitty). As more and more people are expected to get higher incomes, having a kid becomes something not a lot of people are thinking about having. Kids are expensive and there is a lot to take into consideration when having one such as where the child will go to school, saving up for college, buying clothes and necessities, and etc. When people realize just how much you have to give up to be a parent and how overwhelming it can be, they become less enthusiastic about it.On one front, we’ve already made unprecedented strides, reducing global fertility from an average 4.92 children per woman in 1950 to 2.56 today– an accomplishment of trial and sometimes brutally coercive error, but also a result of one woman at a time making her individual choices (Whitty).Women are starting to value themselves and feel motivated enough to get up and make something of themselves rather than being a stay-at-home mom 24/7.However, while some changes have been made, there is still a long way to go. We can start by implementing marketing strategies because social media plays a major role in people’s lives (“Nine Population”). We can also make sure every child in the world has education offered to them, especially the women, because with an education they can get a very good job. It has been noted that women with at least some education end up having fewer children than those who have no education at all (“Nine Population”). In addition to offering general education to students, we must also offer sexuality education classes in order for the students learn about birth control, protection, and much more.The main problem we need to overcome in order for the rate of overpopulation to decrease is ignorance. Stating that overpopulation is something that we should not be worried about so much is simply wrong. For example, immigration is seen as both good and bad, but relating to this topic, the bad outweighs the good. Also, overpopulation is one of the major roots of most of our environmental problems and to say that it should be brushed off because it will essentially create more jobs is speaking from a capitalistic point of view. It just proves how much they care about “maximizing profits” and how little they care about the “needs of humanity” (Cheeseman).The theories Thomas Malthus and Paul Ehrlich came up were in fact wrong for the short run time period, but were right for the long run. They installed a fear in everyone but fear is good because it shows what we need to look more closely at and what we need to do more research in. Most times fear tends to scare people away, but in this case it made people dig deeper to see if what Malthus and Ehrlich were warning us about was actually going to happen. While the theory did not prove to be right during that time period, we are going through the effects now and we should use our platforms to the best of our ability. Whether that be by telling your friends and family about the situation or your followers on social media, anything counts as long as the issue is being spread.