Malaria serious morbidity including impaired consciousness, respiratory distress, hypoglycemia,

Malaria is a major
health burden that is widespread throughout tropical and subtropical regions of
the world. Malaria are potentially life-threatening and require rapid
identification and treatments of infected peoples. Malaria remains one of the most important
causes of morbidity and mortality throughout the world (WHO ,2017a). The disease may be asymptomatic or may result
death or serious morbidity including impaired consciousness,
respiratory distress, hypoglycemia, and jaundice which result admission to intensive care or
prolonged hospital stay (Schellenberg et al., 1999).
Children and pregnant women are more susceptible to malaria, which causes
serious adverse effects in pregnant women including abortion, low birth weight
and maternal anemia (Adam et al., 2005 and Schellenberg et
al., 1999). In 2000, malaria caused an estimated 262 million cases
and 839 000 deaths. More than 80% of cases and 90% of deaths occurred in
sub-Saharan Africa, where children aged under 5 years are particularly prone to
severe disease and death. It is estimated that, in 2000, malaria was responsible
for 12% of all child deaths in the post-neonatal period and 22% in sub-Saharan
Africa.  Since 2000, there have been
substantial reductions
in both the number of malaria cases and deaths due to malaria prevention and
control program such as LLIN and IRS coverage increase. However, still malaria
continues to have a devastating impact on people’s health and livelihoods
around the world especially in Sub Saharan Africa. The incidence has decreased
by 21 % between 2010 and 2015. Malaria related deaths have declined by 29 %
between 2010 and 2015. Even though morbidity and mortality caused by malaria
has reduced within the past decade, malaria still creates a remarkable
worldwide burden. According to WHO report in 2016, in 2015 alone, there were an
estimated 212 million new cases of malaria and 429 000 deaths occurred annually
most of which were in children aged under 5 years in Africa. An estimated 90%
of malaria cases and 92% of malaria deaths in 2015 occurred in the WHO African
Region, followed by the WHO South-East Asia Region accounted for 7% of global
malaria cases and 6% of malaria deaths. Three quarters of these cases and
deaths are estimated to have occurred in fewer than 15 countries, with Nigeria
and Democratic Republic of the Congo accounting for more than a third (WHO, 2017a). Globally, an increase of malaria
cases by around five million is reported in the year 2016(WHO,2017b).

Despite the increases
in malaria intervention coverage, millions of people still do not receive the
services they need. It is estimated that, 43% of the population of sub-Saharan
Africa in 2015 were not covered by ITNs or IRS, 69% of pregnant women did not
receive IPTp and 36% of children with fever were not taken for care ( WHO,2017a) . Poverty and low level of education
are significant predictors of coverage gaps. Based on nationally representative
household survey data for countries in sub-saharan Africa, in 2011–2013, a
median 41% of households did not have an ITN(WHO ,2014).

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