Main is the control of major accident hazards, which

        Main
activities that happen in labs are-

Ø  Experiments

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Ø  Buying
chemicals

Ø  Storing
chemicals

Ø  Teaching

Ø  Moving
equipment from one place to another

Ø  Labelling
chemicals

Ø  Washing
glassware

Ø  Disposing
chemicals

Ø  Heating and
cooling things

 

 

Main legislations that is relevant
to the lab-

 

COSHH is
the law where employers have to control substances that are hazardous to
health. To reduce the workers being exposed to hazardous substances they have
to provide control measures, so that there is less harm to health and do a risk
assessment which can help to decide how harm to health is prevented. Employees
need to be provided with information, instruction and training. This legislation is important because if they’re not used
then it can cause danger to health and safety. Also it increases the
reliability of the experiments.

DSE is display screen equipment regulation
that requires the employers to carry out an analysis and assessment of the work
station, which must meet basic requirements in order for them to be used
without health and safety risks. There must be DSE breaks throughout the day to
keep the employees away from screens. Information, instructions and training
need to be given to the staff, so that they are able to use the equipment
properly.

RIDDOR
(reporting of injuries, diseases and dangerous occurrences regulations) is
where people have to report workplace accidents that are serious, diseases from
work and dangerous incidents. It includes keeping records of things like the
accidents and injuries in the work place which have to be kept confidential and
stored away; otherwise they will break the rules of the Data Protection Act.

 

COMAH
is the control of major accident hazards, which involves doing whatever they
can to prevent any major accidents that involve dangerous substances and limit
the number of major accidents that do occur to people and in the environment.  The dangerous substances can be substances
such as ammonium nitrate, chlorine and explosives as they cause a lot of damage
to people and environment.

 

 

The
hazards in a lab involve:
Ø 
Flammable Solvents
Ø  Flammable
Gas
Ø  Highly
Toxic Chemicals
Ø  Toxic
Gas
Ø  Oxidizers
Ø  Biohazard

Ø  Spillages

Ø  Breakage
of glassware
Ø  Fire
Ø  Radiation
Area
Ø  Corrosive

Ø 
Concentrated HCl
 

Hazards
in a hair salon involve:
Ø 
Products can be poisonous if swallowed
Ø  Flammable

Ø  Cause irritation
Ø  Strong
fumes
Ø  Inhaling
them can be dangerous
Ø  Sharp
objects
Ø  Chemical
exposure
Ø  Electrical

Ø  Cleaning
chemicals
Ø  Repetitive
motion
Ø  Infections
Ø 
Fatigue

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hazards
which are common to both environments are that they both have things which are
flammable.  For example, in hair salons, things
like aerosol sprays, such as
hairspray are highly flammable and hair straighteners/ hair dryers and chemicals
can start a fire. In labs the chemicals which are used are flammable. Also, in
both environments, they both have chemicals which if you are exposed to they
can cause health effects and are irritant if they go on the skin.

In
salons all the products are labelled by manufacturer and in labs they need to
have special kinds of symbols on the chemicals and hazard cards are needed
because the products have more risks in labs. Another safety constraint is the
quantity of substances used needs to be less; for example, hydrochloric acid
can burn skin and bleach in the salon. The sterilisation in both places is
different because in salon they used autoclave and UV cabinet, whereas lab
detergent is used in labs.  Labs have
fume cupboards for ventilation and salons just opens windows because the fumes
aren’t as harmful. To see if you are allergic to a substance a patch test is
used.

Measures that are taken in labs and hair salon to keep its
workforce safe and to comply with legislation are risk assessments which
identify the hazards, risks of someone being harmed and the things that can be
done in order to reduce the risks. A risk assessment should be carried out
whenever a new job brings in new hazards. Health and safety audits are
important because it can identify where improvements are needed and if the
organisation has weaknesses. Also, audits can determine whether the health and
safety programmes and procedures work and they verify that employees and
management are engaged in safety programmes. 
The health and safety policy has to have health and safety matters that
relate to employees, and in most organisations, it also includes the safety of
other people who could be affected by the activities, such as volunteers and
the general public. The policy will show how seriously the health and safety of
an organisation is taken by them and if the employers will do whatever they can
to ensure their employees are protected.

 

In labs, different PPE is used to protect people against health and
safety risks at work. The equipment includes things like;

Ø  Safety helmets

Ø  Hard hats

Ø  Gloves

Ø  Eye protection

Ø  High visibility clothing

Ø  Safety footwear

Ø  Safety harnesses.

Whereas in
hair salon the PPE used is different, such as wearing the appropriate gloves
made from the correct material for the specific chemicals used and to prevent
dermatitis. Also, they have to wear aprons and be provided with suitable
protective clothing and equipment for when handling chemicals.

Health and safety management system
in labs improves the standard of health and safety and allows the company to
comply with legislation because it takes an organised approach to management,
so managing in the labs is easier and more effective. The best way to handle
every activity is worked out and made sure that the same approach is used every
time, so that it’s consistent and the number of mistakes is reduced which
reduces the level of risk to employees.

The health and safety management
systems usually follow a plan, do, check, act model. This system includes a
plan which identifies the key legal requirements, and then the procedures that
you need are decided and applied. Next, targets are set and you check whether
they are being achieved and after that, steps are taken to keep improving the
system, for example better training provided if there are problems in some
areas. The benefits of employees and the company following the systems is that
if they’re in a safe environment they are more productive and conscientious, so
taking steps to reduce risks shows that the employer is responsible and gives the
company a better reputation which wins them more business.

The benefits of health and safety
are that there is increased productivity because if they are working in a safe
environment they’ll feel better and have more assurance, so more work will get
done. In addition, there are fewer accidents because
the staff are trained in things that could be dangerous and things can be done
to prevent things like injuries from slipping or falling from high up. Also, if
there is good health and safety there will be lower employee absence as there
will be less illnesses and injuries caused at work which will also save the
workplace money on employee absences and to hire and train new staff.  Another essential point is that the place
would get a better reputation for being safer and having good work conditions,
meaning it would result in more people wanting to go there and being more
popular. Additionally, there would be a lessened threat of legal action and
legal costs.

 

Fire and evacuation systems- they
should have drills at least once a year with records kept and fire alarms and
equipment needs to be tested weekly. Also fire equipment should be regularly
serviced.

A risk assessment makes you aware
of the risks and identifies who can be at risk and what steps can be taken to
prevent harm. Risk assessment audits show you what mistakes you made and how
they can be avoided in the future. In labs, training has to be organised for
staff that might need to lift or move equipment as instructions need to be
followed so that damage is prevented. The training could involve how to lift
stuff with a straight back and bent knees and using ladders.