Introduction in comparison to a number of other. It

Introduction

 

There have
been continuous debates on the effects of wine on heart health. There are

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significant
numbers of studies trying to prove or disprove this theory. This debate stems
from

 

the ‘French
Paradox’ observation that French people have a moderately low rate of coronary

 

heart disease
(CHD), whilst having a diet quite rich in saturated fats. The paradox is that
if the

 

theory
suggesting saturated fats to CHD is valid, the French should have a much higher
rate of

 

CHD in
comparison to a number of other.  It has
been suspected that France’s high red wine

 

consumption
is a primary factor in this reduced rate of CHD. This theory was heightened in
a

 

sixty
minute broadcast in 1991.(ref) The broadcast sparked a large increase in North
American

 

for the
demand red wines from around the world.

 

When
beginning this study a number of aspects of wine need to be considered; the
alcohol, the

 

level of
antioxidants and the concertation of congeners. Quite a number of studies need
to

 

be compared
and contrasted in order to form a reasonable theory. It is important to look
at 

 

both the
negative effects as well as the positive effects. Practical experiments on
subjects are

 

beneficial
in comparing results as well as research papers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Effect of Red and
White Wine on your Health and Heart.

 

When
looking at the effects of red and white wine on your health, it is necessary to
look at

 

the alcohol
content in wine itself. There are quite a number of studies on alcohols effect
of

 

the body
and all come to the same conclusion that simply, excessive amounts of alcohol
can

 

be
detrimental to one’s health.

 

 

The
component of alcohol that gets you drunk is ethyl alcohol. As soon as alcohol
is taken it

 

travels to
your stomach and accesses your bloodstreami.1
Only 2 to 8 percent is lost in

 

sweat and
urine. However the other 92-98% is metabolised in your body. Your body sees

 

alcohol as
a poison, as it cannot be stored and wants to break it down. All ethyl alcohol
that

 

is broken
down is converted to acetaldehyde by the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme.2

 

The alcohol
dehydrogenase molecules are most active primarily in the stomach and the

 

liver. Traces
can be found in other tissues also. The hydrogen which is released when

 

alcohol dehydrogenase
turns alcohol into acetaldehyde binds to a compound called NAD+ (

 

(Nicotinamide
Adenine Dinucleotide) to form NADH (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide   

 

with Hydrogen).2

 

 

Fig:1

 

Acetaldehyde
dehydrogenase works from the mitochondria of cells. It works by removing a

 

hydrogen
atom from acetaldehyde which then produces acetic acid, again forming NADH as

 

seen simply
above in Figure 1.

 

There are
quite a number of aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes found in the body. The one

 

we are
looking at is ALDH2, which is the main active enzyme to convert acetaldehyde to

 

acetic
acid. Another aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme found in the body called ALDH2*2, is

 

only about
eight percent as efficient as ALDH2 in breaking down acetaldehyde. 2  It was

 

found that
some of the East Asian population have ALDH2*2 rather ALDH2 in their bodies.

 

These
individuals find the effect of alcohol to be more extreme than ALDH2 carriers. The

 

aldehyde
dehydrogenase enzymes are in high concentration in the liver but can be found
in

 

small
amounts in other tissues of the body.

 

The degree of lipid
accumulation depends on the supply of dietary fat. Gradual alteration of

 

mitochondria, which only
occurs during chronic alcohol consumption, lowers levels of fatty acid

 

oxidation by
interrupting the citric acid cycle activity. Due to this interference,
increased

 

amounts of ketone
bodies are formed which results in ketonemia. 3

 

Examples of these
ketone bodies are shown below in figure 2;

 

                                         

                                      

 

Fig 2                                                             Fig
3

 

Ketone bodies are
normally used as energy for the body by forming two GTP and twenty-two

 

ATP molecules for
every acetoacetate molecule when oxidation occurs in the mitochondria.  

 

Ketone bodies are
transported from the liver to other tissues, where acetoacetate and beta-

 

hydroxybutyrate can be
reconverted to acetyl-CoA via the citric acid cycle. However as

 

mentioned above excessive
amounts of alcohol alter the mitochondria and interfere with this

 

cycle. 3

 

The heart
preferentially utilizes fatty acids as fuel under normal physiologic
conditions.

 

However, under ketotic
conditions, the heart can effectively utilize ketone bodies for this

 

purpose. However, the mitochondrial
damage preserves fatty acid build up even in the absence

 

of ethanol oxidation.4
Alcohol facilitates esterification of the accumulated fatty acids to

 

triglycerides,
phospholipids, and cholesterol esters, all of which accumulate in the liver.
This

 

encourages the accumulation
of Low density lipoproteins (“bad cholesterol”) which deliver fat

 

molecules to the cells
and can encourage the progression of atherosclerosis if they become

 

oxidized within the
walls of arteries. 5 Moderate alcohol consumption is said to
actually have

 

the opposite effect
and raise the amount of High density lipoproteins (“good cholesterol”).

 

The case of alcohol
has been extensively studied, but the key question is whether wine offers

 

additional benefits?

 

 

Despite the alcohol
content wine has a number of benefits. This is known as the “French

 

Paradox” which refers to the observation that the French
suffer a relatively low incidence of

 

coronary
heart disease, despite having a diet relatively rich in saturated fats. 6
The

 

phenomenon
was first noted by Irish physician Samuel Black in 1819.

 

During our studies, we
found this to be true (in moderation).

 

Wine contains a number
of antioxidants which inhibit the oxidation of other molecules. They

 

are free radical
scavengers. 7 Oxidation reactions result in the production of free
radicals

 

which are a highly
reactive species that commence chain reactions (domino effect) that damage

 

healthy cells.
Antioxidants inhibit these reactions from occurring by getting rid of the free

 

radical intermediates,
and prevent any side oxidation reactions by being oxidized themselves.

 

8 Antioxidants are seen as reducing agents for
example thiols or polyphenols such as

 

Resveratrol. In this
case they prevent the oxidation of the fatty acids in the walls of the arteries

 

which cause
cholesterol as explained above in alcohols effects. In wine, these antioxidants
are

 

naturally occurring.6
The Mayo Clinic, 9 speculates that it is the polyphenol
antioxidant,

 

resveratrol that “Might
be a key ingredient in red wine that helps prevent damage to blood

 

vessels, reduces
low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (the “bad” cholesterol) and
prevents

 

blood clots. Some
research shows that resveratrol could be linked to a lower risk of

 

inflammation and blood
clotting, which can lead to heart disease. But
other studies found no

 

benefits from
resveratrol in preventing heart disease.” 9

 

                                                      

Fig:  4 (ref)                                                                   
                           Fig:5
(ref)

 

 

Phytoalexins
are a type of antibiotics formed by plants when under threat by pathogens such
as

 

types of
fungus or bacteria. 6 Resveratrol is a phytoalexin produced
organically by a number of

 

plants including
grape vines. Resveratrol is found in the skin of red
grapes.

 

I came
across a study which stated that “The red wine phenolics trans-resveratrol and

 

quercetin
block human platelet aggregation and eicosanoid synthesis: Implications for

 

protection
against coronary heart disease” 10. This particular study analysed
the effects of

 

trans-resveratrol
on human platelet aggregation and on the synthesis of three eicosanoids

 

(Eicosanoids
are signalling molecules that are formed by the enzymatic or non-enzymatic

 

oxidation
of arachidonic acid or different types polyunsaturated fatty acids) from
arachidonate

 

by
platelets. The study came to the conclusion that  trans-Resveratrol prevented the synthesis

 

of TxB2(
thromboxane), HHT(hydroxyheptadecatrienoate), and 12-HETE

 

(hydroxyeicosatetraenoate),
from arachidonate depending on the dosage. 10 Alcohol free red

 

wines inhibited
platelet aggregation. Their ability to impede the synthesis of TxB2 but not
that

 

of 12-HETE
from arachidonate by human platelets was proportional to their
trans-resveratrol

 

concentration.
These results are consistent with the notion that trans-resveratrol may

 

contribute
to the suspected protective role of red wine against atherosclerosis and
Coronary

 

Heart
Disease. 11

 

 

Fig 6

 

 

There is a
large phenolic contents in red wine especially, resveratrol for one but wine
also

 

contains
flavonols. For example the flavanol quercetin.  A study done to prove that wine

 

flavonoids
protect against LDL oxidation and Atherosclerosis 12 showed that

 

intake of
red wine (but not of white wine) by healthy volunteers, resulted in the enhancement

 

of their
plasma LDL with flavonoid antioxidants such as quercetin, the potent free
radicals

 

scavenger
flavanol, which binds to the LDL through a glycosidic ether bond.

 

To
determine the effect of red wine consumption on atherosclerosis, mice were
used. In the

 

mice, red
wine consumption for two months resulted in a forty percent decrease in basal
LDL

 

oxidation, similarly
a decline in LDL oxidizability and aggregation and a thirty five percent

 

reduction
in lesion size. Red wine consumption resulted in build-up of flavonoids in the
mouse

 

macrophages
and the cells oxidized LDL and took up LDL about forty percent less than

 

macrophages
from placebo-treated mice.12 The study concluded that red wine
consumption

 

acted
against the accumulation of oxidized LDL in lesions as a first line of defense
(by a direct

 

inhibition
of LDL oxidation), and as a second line of defense (by paraoxonase elevation
and

 

removal of
atherogenic lesion’s and lipoprotein’s oxidized lipids).

 

Proanthocyanidins
are a type of polymer chains of flavonoids such as catechins (plant

 

secondary
metabolite).6 Also known as OPCs (Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins),
pycnogenol,

 

leukocyanidin
and leucoanthocyanin. They are found in several plants, grape seeds and skins.

 

The beneficial
effects of proanthocyanidins include neutralizing oxidants and free radicals,

 

Preventing
the destruction of collagen (the most abundant protein in the body) and
depressing

 

fat in the
blood. Some research indicates that the vascular benefits of red wine drinking
depend

 

 

on the
presence of oligomeric proanthocyanidins.13

 

Additionally,
studies have shown that OPCs may prevent cardiovascular disease by relieving

 

the
negative effects of high cholesterol on the heart and blood vessels. 14

 

                                             Fig 7:

 

                                                        Fig 8:

 

 

The health
benefits of resveratrol on humans have yet to be physically proven. In mouse
and

 

rat
experiments, blood-sugar-lowering, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and other
beneficial

 

cardiovascular
effects of resveratrol and flavanols have been reported. The majority of these

 

results
have yet to be performed on humans.

 

However
there have been a number of studies which analyse the effects of wine itself on
your

 

health and
heart compared to other alcoholic beverages. A study done on the impact of

 

moderate
wine consumption on health15, looked at both resveratrol and
flavan-3-ol and

 

came to the
conclusion that the balance of moderate wine intake was beneficial and that
there

 

was
reasonable agreement in beneficial effects of moderate wine consumption in

 

cardiovascular
disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, possibly neurological diseases.

 

A basic
study on wine and your heart 16 did not carry out any practical
research but analysed

 

a number references
similar to the point of this project. Following a number of cross

 

references,
it was found that moderate intake of alcoholic beverages is associated with a

 

reduced risk
of CHD in populations.

 

A study on
the mortality associated with moderate intakes of wine, beer or spirits

 

complimented
the conclusions from the previous studies.17 They completed a
practical study

 

on 6051 men
and 7234 women aged 30 to 70. The study came to the conclusion from their

 

experimental
research that low to moderate consumption of wine is associated with lower

 

mortality
from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. The same consumption of
spirits

 

suggested
an increased risk. However beer did not result in any change on mortality.17

 

Alcohol in
small doses is assumed to protect against ischaemic heart disease. In this
study

 

drinkers of
three to five glasses of wine a day had half the risk of dying as those who
never

 

drank wine.
Beer and spirit drinkers experienced no such advantages, and three to five
drinks of

 

spirits a
day was associated with increased mortality.17

 

 

White wine
has more or less the same health benefits as red wine. We noticed a lack of

 

research on
the effects of white wine on your heart and health to the effects of white
wine,

 

Making it
that bit more difficult to answer the question; Which is better, Red or White
Wine?

 

White wine
has many of the same positive health benefits as red wine.  It, too, contains

 

flavonoids
that have antioxidant properties, which can help prevent cancer. 18

 

White wine
is also suspected to have the ability to protect the heart against aging
according to

 

a study
carried out by the University of Connecticut School of Medicine 19.
The cardio

 

protective
effects of red wine have been accredited to several polyphenolic antioxidants
for

 

example resveratrol
and proanthocyanidins. The aim of the their study was to determine

 

whether
white wines could also provide protection to the heart and surrounding
arteries. Like

 

many of the
study to date, this analysis was carried out on rats. The results of the study

 

demonstrated
that out of the three different white wines that were analysed, only one of the

 

wines
showed cardiovascular protection which was showed improved ventricular recovery

 

compared
with controls.19

 

There are
fewer numbers of antioxidants in white wine than red wine. The reason for this
is

 

 that red wine grapes are fermented with the
seeds and skins which are rich in tannins and

 

resveratrol.

Fig 9

 

 

As seen in
Figure 9  the presence of anthocyannins,
flavan-3-ols and flavanols

 

are found
in the skin of the grape. Resveratrol is found in the seeds. From this alone we
can

 

conclude
that maybe red wine is that little bit better for you than white wine due to the
higher

 

content of
polyphenolic compounds providing antioxidant properties.

 

 

Red wine
contains lower levels of congeners that white wine. In the alcoholic drinks
industry,

 

congeners
are substances produced during the fermentation process.20 These substances

 

include
small amounts of chemicals such as methanol, acetone, acetaldehyde, esters,
tannins,

 

and
aldehydes. Congeners are accountable for the majority of the taste and aroma of
alcoholic

 

drinks. It
has been suggested that these substances contribute to the symptoms of a

 

hangover.21
Congeners are in high concentration in dark beverages such a red wine, whiskey

 

and
bourbon. They are in much lower concentration in vodka, white wine and gin.
There were

particular
studies on congeners in red wine vs white but a study on ‘Hangovers and Whiskey

 

Congeners’ 22
preformed a clinical study on 68 non-drinkers and moderate alcohol
drinkers.

 

The study
revealed that the hangover symptoms were non-existent for the same quantities
of

 

vodka compared
to whiskey. It was found that the whiskey congeners slow the metabolism of

 

alcohol and
prolong the action and after effects. This study in fact confirmed that, in

 

comparable
amounts of vodka, vodka caused a less sever hangover. One particular

 

congener,
methanol, can break down into to formaldehyde and formic acid which worsen a

 

hangover as
they are toxic substances which cause nausea and headaches. 21

 

 

In a brief
conclusion it might be valid to say that maybe a glass of wine a day may keep
the

 

doctor
away! (always in moderation). As for white wine, many of the positive effects
of red

wine are
too seen in white wine. It is just the lower levels of antioxidants and
resveratrol in

 

white wine
that make red wine that make it that little bit more beneficial to one’s health
(due

 

to red wine
being fermented with the seeds and skins).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.    
The
science of alcohol: How booze affects your body Internet. Bbc.co.uk. 2018
cited 18 January 2018. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/newsbeat/article/30350860/the-science-of-alcohol-how-booze-affects-your-body

2.    
 How
Alcohol Is Metabolized in the Human Body Internet. Hams.cc. 2018 cited 18
January 2018. Available from: http://hams.cc/metabolism/

3.    
Enrique Baraona and Charles S. Lieber, The Effects
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4.    
Elizabeth R. De Oliveira e Silva, David Foster, Monnie McGee Harper, Alcohol Consumption Raises HDL Cholesterol Levels by Increasing
the Transport Rate of Apolipoproteins A-I and A-I, November 2000, Circulation
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6.    
Breton
F. Health benefits of wine º Antioxidants, resveratrol, and procyanidins in red
wine Internet. Frenchscout.com. 2018 cited 10 January 2018. Available from:
http://www.frenchscout.com/polyphenols

 

7.    
E.H Siemann, L. L. Creasy, Concentration of
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8.    
King-Thom Chung, Tit Yee Wong, Cheng-I
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Science and Nutrition, Volume 38, Issue 6, Pages 421-464.

9.    
Red
wine and your heart Internet. Mayo Clinic. 2018 cited 20 January 2018.
Available from: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/heart-disease/in-depth/red-wine/art-20048281

10.   Cecil
R. Pace-Asciak, Susah Hahn, The Red Wine
Phenolics Trans-Resveratrol and Quercetin Block Human Platelet
Aggregation and Eicosanoid Synthesis: Implications for Protection Against
Coronary Heart Disease, March 1995, Clinica Chimica Acta, Volume 235, Issue 2,
Pages 207-219.

11.  Steinberg
D, Antioxidants and Atherosclerosis: A Current Assessment, 1991, Circulation
Journal, Volume 84, Issue 3, Pages 1420-1425.

12.   Michael Aviram, Bianca Furham, Wine Flavanoids
Protect against LDL Oxidations and Atherosclerosis, May 2002, Annals of The New
York Academy of Sciences Journal, Volume 957, Pages 146-161.

13.  Mario
Dell’Agli, Alessandra Busciala, Enrica Bosisio, Vascular Effects of Wine
Polyphenols, September 2004, Cardiovascular Research, Volume 63, Issue 4, Pages
593-602.

14.  Debasis Bagchi, Manashi Bagchi, Sidney J
Stohs, Free radicals and
grape seed proanthocyanidin extract: importance in human health and disease
prevention, August 2000, Journal of Toxicology, Volume 148, Issue 2-3, pages
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15. 
Ana
Artero, Arturo Artero, Juan J. Tarrin, The Impact of Moderate Wine Consumption
on Health, January 2015, Maturitas Journal, Volume 80, Issue 1, Pages 3-13.

16. 
Ira J.
Goldberg, Lori Mosca, Mariann R. Piano, Wine and Your Heart: A Science Advisory for
Healthcare Professionals From the Nutrition Committee, Council on Epidemiology
and Prevention, and Council on Cardiovascular Nursing of the American Heart
Association, January 2001, Circulation Journal, Volume 103, Issue 3, Article.

 

 

17. 
Morten
Gronbaek, Allan Deis, Thorkeild I A Sorenson, Ulrik Becker, Mortality
Associated With Moderate Intakes of Wine, Beer or Spirits, 1995, The British
Medical Journal, 310:1165.

 

 

18. 
The
Health Benefits of White Wine and Champagne – Heart Disease | HealthCentral
Internet. Healthcentral.com. 2018 cited 23 January 2018. Available from: https://www.healthcentral.com/article/the-health-benefits-of-white-wine-and-champagne

 

19.  Cui
J, Tosaki A, Bertelli AA, Betelli A, Cardioprotection With White Wine, 2002,
National Centre for Biotechnology Information PubMed, Volume 28, Issue 1,
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20.  Congener (alcohol)
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21.  Damaris J. Rohsenow, Jonathan Howland, The Role of
Beverage Congeners in Hangover and Other Residual Effects of Alcohol
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22.  Frederic
Damrau and Emma Liddy, Hangovers and Whiskey Congeners, 1960, Journal of the
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Figure 1: Organic-Biochemistry-Nutrition
Internet. Richard David Feinman. 2018                                                  
cited 26January 2018. Available from: https://feinmantheother.com/organic-biochemistry-nutrition/

 

Figure 2,3,6,7 & 8: ChemDraw

 

Figure 2: Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)
– Willy Organic Chemistry Internet. Sites.google.com. 2018 cited 26 January
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Figure 3: Reference G. Familial HDL
deficiency Internet. Genetics Home Reference. 2018 cited 26 January 2018.
Available from: https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/familial-hdl-deficiency

 

Figure 9: Red Wine vs White Wine: The
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2018. Available from: http://winefolly.com/tutorial/red-wine-vs-white-wine-the-real-differences/