Germany numbering about three million and is very often

Germany is currently home to some 15 million
immigrants and their offspring born in the

Countries.
By statistical analysis, about 20 percent of the population have migration
backgrounds and that makes Germany one of the European countries with the
largest migrant population. The largest migrant groups in Germany are those
from the former Soviet Union, followed by the groups are made up of ethnic
Turks, numbering about three million and is very often spoken of as Germany’s
largest non-native population group. The next on the list are people from Southern
Europe, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain, next are those from the Far East
and the Middle East and finally, people from Africa, the smallest of the
groups. The demographically youngest migrant groups found in Germany are those
with Turkish and African backgrounds and they are the groups with the highest
birth rates (Kreyenfeld 2010).

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African Immigrants are relatively young at the time
of arrival; unlike the other migrant groups under consideration. This group
continues to grow solely on the basis of their high fertility rates, while the
native population have been shrinking for decades; since migrants tend to have
more children than they do and their percentage share of the population will
continue to grow even without any further immigration.

 

Policies
on Asylum Seekers

The European Union convention made lot of resolution
on asylum seekers and refugees; Article 3 and 12 of the
European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) (states that ‘No one shall be
subjected to torture or inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment’. A person
can make a claim for protection based directly on Article 3 of ECHR as states
are prohibited from returning a person to a country where she/he may suffer a
violation of his/her rights under Article 3) and Men and women of
marriageable age have the right to marry and to fund a family according to the
national laws governing the exercise of these rights respectively.

 

 

 

 

Fertility
Theories

The literature on fertility
goes back at least to Thomas Malthus and the nineteenth-century debate on the
Poor Law (Boyer, 1989). Malthus argued that “the Poor Law subsidized marriage
and fertility by removing the natural checks on population growth of delayed
marriage and abstention from sexual activity” (Anon n.d.), this was articulated from
his famous book Essay on the Principle of Population (1798). He saw positive checks to population growth as a
contributing factor to the shortening of human fertility.

Recent theories have linked migration and fertility prevalence from
different aspects of human lives, such as:

Disruption
theory:
It considers the economic and psychological costs of migration and notes the
stresses people are exposed to from migration processes and after arrival;
which may cause a short term disruption of fertility (Goldstein, 1973; Hervitz,
1985; Kulu, 2005). After arrival at a place of destination, people need time to
settle down, which makes the occurrence of conception unlikely. An anticipatory
effect is assumed that there is temporary separation between partners which decreases
fertility.

Socialization
theory:
This stresses the childhood socialization processes of an adult. “It assumes
that the norms and values adopted in the home country are essential for the
later fertility behavior of migrants” (Hervitz, 1985; Kahn, 1994; Kulu, 2005; Stephen
and Bean, 1992)” Those norms and values of fertility are shaped during early
childhood of migrants and are predominant in their fertility behavior(s) in the
country(s) of destination. Migrants will maintain the norms and values learned
during socialization; even if the norms and socialization process in the host
country are different. As migrants adjust to the host county’s socialization
process, there is convergence in the norms and values of the country of origin
and that of the host country.

Adaptation
theory:
Cultural and socioeconomic conditions posit the differences between a migrant’s
country of origin and host country of destination in terms of fertility
preferences. From the view of household micro economies, there is a shift in the
cost benefit calculation of having an additional child in the host country
(Becker, 1998). Thus, migrants’ adjustment to a desired number of children
might change both in the short and long run due to the social, economic, and
cultural conditions in the host country (Kulu, 2005; Milewski, 2007).

Today, in the developing countries; there is a huge rise in poverty and
hunger, lack of basic infrastructure and health care facilities
which now are great threats to human lives; leading to the huge migration rate from
the west African sub-regions. According to Malthus, subsidizing (which could be
a form of indirect earns such as free housing, free healthcare services, social
welfare payments, free education for children, and other public services) for
the poor will lead to an increase in fertility rate. The key modern reference
on fertility as an economic decision is (Becker 1960), that argues that
children should be analyzed as durable consumption and production goods. Within
the Becker’s framework, demands for children responds to changes in the cost of
a marginal child. The effect of income changes on fertility has been a major
debate in recent times; he asserts that the demand for an additional child is
directly proportional to the level of income of the parents.  In other words, the demand for an addition
child is equal to the family subsidies available.

In addition to the fore going, Germany has been known to
be a social welfare state and has given opportunities to migrants to benefit
from such privileges. Immigrants are often perceived as a
burden to public budget as they allegedly pay less tax; they consume goods and
services provided by the Government. On the other hand, refugees and asylum
seekers are non-contributors to government tax, they are solely dependent on
and expend all necessary aids from the government.

Finally, the theories link migration with the legal
status of the mother and her fertility desire. Fertility may increase shortly
after migration because undocumented migrants want to obtain legal or economic
benefits by giving birth (Bledsoe, 2004; Bledsoe et al., 2007).  However, this theory only applies to specific
contexts.