Definition The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) for instance now de?nes the Internet of Things as ”a global infrastructure for the Information Society, enabling advanced services by interconnecting (physical and virtual) things based on, existing and evolving, interoperable information and communication technologies”IoT solutions typically combine physical things with IT in the form of hardware and software. As a result, the primary thing-based physical functions of a thing can be enhanced with additional IT-based digital services, which can be accessed at a global level.Internet of Things (IoT) is a global infrastructure for the information society, enabling advanced services by interconnecting (physical and virtual) things based on existing and evolving interoperable information and communication technologies. It is envisioned that environments with trillions of device and information objects are connected via networks. The vision of the IoT is a smart world consisting of smart devices, smartphones, smart cars, smart homes, smart cities . With IoT, physical objects are able to be seamlessly integrated into an Internet-like system so that theWith big data analytics, we could continuously improve the collection, aggregation, and use of data to improve the life of their residents by harnessing the growing data revolution, low-cost sensors, and research collaborations, and doing so securely to protect safety and privacy.Value providedThe impact which IoT technologies can have is however not limited to the value created by individual connected products. Instead, the functions of one product may be further enhanced if it is connected to related products and thus becomes part of a product systemConceptFrom a technological perspective, the implementation of a connected product typically requires the combination of multiple software and hardware components in a multilayer stack of IoT technologies. IoT technology stack is usually composed of three core layers, i.e., the thing or device layer, the connectivity layer and the IoT cloud layer. At the device layer, IoT- speci?c hardware, such as additional sensors, actuators, or processors can be added to existing core hardware components, and embedded software can be modi?ed or newly integrated to manage and operate the functionality of the physical thing. At the connectivity layer, communication protocols such as MQTT enable the communication to be- tween the individual thing and the cloud. And at the IoT cloud layer, device communication and management software are used to communicate with, provision, and manage the connected things, while an application platform enables the development and execution of IoT applications. Moreover, analytics and data management software is employed to store, process, and analyze the data generated by the connected things, and process management software helps to de?ne, execute and monitor processes across people, systems and things. Ultimately, IoT application software coordinates the interaction of people, systems and things for a given purpose. In addition, cutting across all layers, software components manage identity and security aspects, as well as the integration with business systems, e.g., for ERP or CRM, and with external information sources ArchitectureAn integrated smart system is just like a human who has his own sensing systems, nervous system, store system, and his own brain for decision-making. The functional architecture of the IoT for smart towns involves four different layers: sensing/responding layer, interconnecting layer, data layer, and services layer. The sensing/responding layer is the outmost layer of IoT, which is the perceiving and responding system. The layer includes all kinds of “Things” connected to the IoT, mainly varieties of smart devices. The primary functions of this layer include 1) perceiving the state changes of the thing itself or the environment, and transmit the information to the interconnecting layer with the speci?c format; 2) receiving commands from core layers and making responses according to commands. Currently, researchers on this layer focus on the sensing related communicating techniques, mainly addressing on the RFID technology and sensor network systems. There would be trillions of smart devices in a smart town. These interconnected devices are endowed with different tasks. They can be classi?ed into three categories according to their functions. – Sensors. A sensing object has the relative simple function– only perceiving the state of its environment, such as temperature, location, and etc., and submitting the captured data to the control node. Generally, such a sensing device could make neither any decision nor any action actively. – Actors. An actor object can receive the command from the control node, and make an action according to the command. – Sensor/Actor. A sensing/actor object (SAO) can not only capture and send the environment information but also make an action according to the received command. In addition, some SAO might have a micro decision module, which can make some decision for its next action according to the local knowledge. The interconnecting layer is the connecting systems, including the current internet and mobile internet. Just like the human nerves system, its main mission is data transmission and information exchange among different devices and different domains. The rapid development and the maturation of the current internet technologies provide a solid foundation in communication technology. The data layer is the “brain” of the smart towns. Regarding to demands from services layer, for example, smart lighting in bad weather, the intelligent decision system automatically decides next actions with the Trends Trends From a long perspective, the development trend of the Internet of Things includes three steps: embedded intelligence, connectivity, interaction. Firstly, we have embedded intelligences which can do actions automatically. There already have been many applications, for example: the RFID tag embedded in food can record the information about the food and we can get the information by using a RFID reader; the washing machine controller can make washing machine complete its work automatically; engine controllers and antilock bake controllers for automobiles; inertial guidance system, flight control hardware/software and other integrated systems in aircraft and missiles; artificial arms with semi-functional hands, etc. Though all of those devices are intelligent, we can see that they only work alone and locally, there’s nothing to do with “network”. So the next step is making every smart device can be connected. From the smart connected devices viewpoint, smart devices are not smart because they are just endowed with agent capabilities and all the actions are pre-designed by human, they are smart because they are connected. Things can be connected wired or wirelessly. In the Internet of Things wireless connection will to be the main way. Base on the existed infrastructure, there are many ways to connect a thing: RFID, ZigBee, WPAN, WSN, DSL, UMTS, GPRS, WiFi, WiMax, LAN, WAN, 3G, etc. Connect smart things makes interaction possible. Even though we can connect anything does not mean things can communicate by themselves. So new smart things should be created which can process information, self configure, self-maintain, self-repair, make independent decision, eventually even play an active role in their own disposal. Things can interact, they exchange information by themselves. So the form of communication will change from human-human to human-thing to thing-thing. As the Internet of Things is application driven, new business applications should be created which can improve the innovation and development of the Internet of Things Applications of IoTThe potentialities offered by the IoT make it possible to develop numerous applications based on it, of which only a few applications are currently deployed. In future, there will be intelligent applications for smarter homes and of?ces, smarter transportation systems, smarter hospitals, smarter enterprises and factories. In the following subsections, some of the important example applications of IoT are brie?y discussed.Aerospace and Aviation IndustryInternet of Things can help to improve safety and security of products and services by reliably identifying counterfeit products and elements. The aviation industry, for example, isInternet of Thingsvulnerable to the problem of suspected unapproved parts (SUP). A SUP is an aircraft part that is not guaranteed to meet the requirements of an approved aircraft part (e.g., counterfeits, which do not conform to the strict quality constraints of the aviation industry). Thus, SUPs seriously violate the security standards of an aircraft. Aviation authorities report that at least 28 accidents or incidents in the United States have been caused by counterfeits. Apart from time-consuming material analyses verifying the authenticity of aircraft parts can be performed by inspecting the accompanying documents, which can be easily forged. It is possible to solve this problem by introducing electronic pedigrees for certain categories of aircraft parts, which document their origin and safety-critical events during their lifecycle (e.g., modi?cations). By storing these pedigrees within a decentralized database as well as on RFID tags, which are securely attached to aircraft parts, an authentication (veri?cation of digital signatures, comparison of the pedigree on RFID tags and within the database) of these parts can be performed prior to installing them in an aircraft. In this way, safety and operational reliability of aircrafts can be significantly improved.Automotive IndustryAdvanced cars, trains, buses as well as bicycles are becoming equipped with advanced sensors, actuators with increased processing powers. Applications in the automotive industry include the use of smart things to monitor and report various parameters from pressure in tires to a proximity of other vehicles. Radio Frequency Identi?cation technology has already been used to streamline vehicle production, improve logistics, increase quality control and improve customer services. The devices attached to the parts contain information related to the name of the manufacturer and when and where the product was made, its serial number, type, product code, and in some applications the precise location in the facility at that moment. Radio Frequency Identi?cation technology provides real-time data in the manufacturing processes, maintenance operations and offers new ways of managing recalls more effectively.DedicatedShortRangeCommunication(DSRC)technology will possibly help to achieve higher bit rates and reducing interference with other equipment Vehicle-to vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications will significantly advance Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) applications such as vehicle safety services and traf?c management and will be fully integrated into the IoT infrastructure. Telecommunications IndustryIoT will create the possibility of merging of diverse telecommunication technologies and create new services. An illustrative example is the use of GSM, NFC (Near Field Communication), low power Bluetooth, WLAN, multi-hop networks, GPS and sensor networks together with SIM-card technology. In these types of applications, the reader (i.e., tag) is a part of the mobile phone, and different applications share the SIM-card. NFC enables communications among objects in a simple and secure way just by having them close to each other.ThemobilephonecanthereforebeusedasaNFC-reader and transmit the read data to a central server.Whenusedinamobilephone,theSIM-card plays an important role as storage for the NFC data and authentication credentials (like ticket numbers, credit card accounts, ID information). Thingscanjoinnetworks and facilitate peer-to-peer communication for specialized purposes or to increase the robustness of communications channels and networks. Things can form ad-hoc peer-to-peer networks in disaster situations to keep the ?ow of vital information going in case of telecommunication infrastructure failures. Medical and Healthcare IndustryIoT will have many applications in the healthcare sector, with the possibility of using the cellphonewithRFID-sensor capabilities as a platform for monitoring of medical parameters and drug delivery. The advantage gained is in prevention and easy monitoring of diseases, ad hoc diagnosis and providing prompt medical attention in cases of accidents. Implantable and addressable wireless devices can be used to store health records that can save a patient’s life in emergency situations, especially for people with diabetes, cancer, coronary heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cognitive impairments, seizure disorders and Alzheimer’s disease. Edible, biodegradable chips can be introduced into the human body for guided actions. Paraplegic persons can have muscular stimuli delivered via an implanted smart thing-controlled electrical simulation system in order to restore movement functions. Independent LivingIoTapplicationsandserviceswillhaveanimportantimpactonindependentlivingbyprovid- ing support for an aging population by detecting the activities of daily living using wearable and ambient sensors, monitoring social interactions using wearable and ambient sensors, monitoring chronic disease using wearable vital signs sensors, and in body sensors. With the emergence of pattern detection and machine learning algorithms, the things in a patient’s environment would be able to watch out and care for the patient. Things can learn regular routines and raise alerts or send out noti?cations in anomaly situations. These services can be merged with the medical technology services, mentioned in Sect. 220.127.116.11 Pharmaceutical IndustryFor pharmaceutical products, security and safety are of utmost importance. In IoT paradigm, attaching smart labels to drugs, tracking them through the supply chain and monitoring their statuswithsensorshasmanypotentialbene?ts.For example,itemsrequiringspeci?cstorage conditions,maintenance of a cool chain, can be continuously monitored and discarded if conditions were violated during transport. Drug tracking and e-pedigrees allow for the detection of counterfeit products and keep the supply chain free of fraudsters. Counterfeiting is a common practice in this area as illustrated in 25, and it particularly affects the developing countries. The smart labels on the drugs can also directly bene?t patients, by enabling storing of the package insert, informing consumers of dosages and expiration dates, and assuring the authenticity of the medication. In conjunction with a smart medicine cabinet that reads information transmitted by the drug labels, patients can be reminded to take their medicine at appropriate intervals and patient compliance can be monitored.Internet of Things If manufacturers know the stock and sales data from retailers, they can produce and ship the right quantities of products, thus avoiding the situation of over-production or underproduction. The logistic processes from supply chains in many industry sectors can bene?t from exchangingofRFIDdata.Moreover, environmental issues can be better tackled.The carbon footprint of logistics and supply chain processes can be optimized based on the availability of dynamic and ?ne-grained data collected in the real world directly by some of the things of IoT, such as trucks, pallets, individual product items etc. In the shops, IoT can offer many applications like guidance in the shop according to a pre-selected shopping list, fast payment solutions like automatically check-out using biometrics, detection of potential allergen in a given product, personalized marketing, veri?cation of the cool chain, etc. Commercial buildings will also bene?t from smart building functionalities.5.8 Manufacturing IndustryBy linking items with information technology, either through embedded smart devices or through the use of unique identi?ers and data carriers that can interact with an intelligent supporting network infrastructure and information systems, production processes can be optimized and the entire lifecycle of objects, from production to disposal can be monitored. By tagging items and containers, greater transparency can be gained about the status of the shop ?oor, the location and disposition of lots, and the status of production machines. The ?ne grained information serves as input data for re?ned production schedules and improved logistics. Self-organizing and intelligent manufacturing solutions can be designed around identi?able items.5.9 Process IndustryInmanyplantsoftheoilandgasindustry, scalable architectures are being used that consider possibilities for plug-and-play new ID methods combined with sensing/actuating integrated with the IoT infrastructure and integrate the wireless monitoring of petroleum personnel in critical onshore and offshore operations, container tracking, tracking of drill string components pipes, monitoring and managing of ?xed equipment etc. A review of high-impact accidents in the chemical and petrochemical sectors in the UK such as lack of understanding as well as poor management of storage, process, and chemical segregation. IoT can help in reducing the number of accidents in the oil and gas industry by equipping the containers of hazardous chemicals with intelligent wireless sensor nodes.Environment MonitoringUtilization of wireless identi?able devices and other IoT technologies in green applications and environmental conservation are one of the most promising market segments in the future. Transportation IndustryIoT offers solutions for fare collection and toll systems, screening of passengers and bags boarding commercial carriers and the goods moved by the international cargo system that support the security policies of the governments and the transportation industry, to meet the increasing demand for security in the globe. Monitoring traf?c jams through cell phones of the users and deployment of intelligent transport systems (ITS) will make the transportation of goods and people more ef?cient. Transportation companies would become more ef?cient in packing containers since the containers can self- scan and weigh themselves. Use of IoT technologies for managing passenger luggage in airports and airline operations will enable automated tracking and sorting, increased per-bag read rates, and increased security.Agriculture and BreedingThe regulations for traceability of agricultural animals and their movements require the use of technologies like IoT, making possible the real-time detection of animals, for example during outbreaks of contagious disease. Moreover, in many cases, countries give subsidies depending on the number of animals in a herd and other requirements, to farms with cattle, sheep, and goats. As the determination of the number is dif?cult, there is always the possibility of frauds. Good identi?cation systems can help minimize this fraud. Therefore, with the application of identi?cation systems, animal diseases can be controlled, surveyed, and prevented. Of?cial identi?cation of animals in national, intracommunity, and international commerce is already in place, while at the same time, identi?cation of livestock that are vaccinated or tested under of?cial disease control or eradication is also possible. Blood and tissue specimens can be accurately identi?ed, and the health status of herds, regions, and countries can be certi?ed by using IoT. With IoT, single farmers may be able to deliver the crops directly to the consumers not only in a small region like in direct marketing or shops but in a wider area. This will change the whole supply chain which is mainly in the hand of large companies, now, but can change to a more direct, shorter chain between producers and consumers.5.13 Media, Entertainment IndustryDeploymentofIoTtechnologieswillenableadhocnewsgatheringbasedonlocationsofthe users. The news gathering could happen by querying IoT, to see which multi-media-capa- ble devices are present at a certain location, and sending them a (?nancial) offer to collect multimedia footage about a certain event. Near ?eld communication tags can be attached to posters for providing more information by connecting the reader to an URI address that contains detailed information related to the poster.Challenges Challenges and Open IssuesThe work?ows in the analysed enterprise environment, home, of?ce and other smart spaces in the future will be characterized by cross-organization interaction, requiring the operation of highly dynamic and ad-hoc relationships. At present, only a very limited ICT support is available, and the following key challenges exist.(i) Network Foundation—limitations of the current Internet architecture in terms of mobility, availability, manageability and scalability are some of the major barriers to IoT. (ii) Security, PrivacyandTrust—in the domain of security the challenges are:(a)securing the architecture of IoT– security to be ensured at design time and execution time, (b) proactive identi?cation and protection of IoT from arbitrary attacks (e.g. DoS and DDoS attacks) and abuse, and (c) proactive identi?cation and protection of IoT from malicious software.Inthedomainofuserprivacy,thespeci?cchallengesare:(a)control over personal information (data privacy) and control over individual’s physical location and movement (location privacy), (b) need for privacy enhancement technologies and relevant protection laws, and (c) standards, methodologies and tools for identity management of users and objects. In the domain of trust, some of the speci?c challenges managing heterogeneous applications, environments and devices constitute a major challenge.Some of the other challenges are:(a)managing large amount of information and mining large volume of data to provide useful services, (b) designing an ef?cient architecture for sensor networking and storage, (iii) designing mechanisms for sensor data discovery, (iv) designing sensor data communication protocols— sensor data query,publish/subscribe mechanisms,(v)developing sensor data stream process- ing mechanisms, and (vi) sensor data mining—correlation, aggregation ?ltering techniques design. Finally, standardizing heterogeneous technologies, devices, application interfaces etc. will also be a major challenge.