CHAPTER whose form is determined by its social purpose.

CHAPTER
II

THEORETICAL
FRAMEWORK

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In
this chapter, the researcher wants to explain about theoretical approach and
theoretical framework which are related to this paper. Theoretical approach
tells about the approach that is used in this paper. Theoretical framework of
this paper shows the description of discourse, discourse analysis, microstructure,
and macrostructure.

A.  Theoretical
Approach

Approach is a method of doing something or dealing
with a problem (Longman Dictionary, 2003 : 62). In this research, the
researcher uses discourse analysis as the approach.

Discourse analysis focuses on the structure of
naturally occuring spoken is language, as found in such ‘discourses’ as
conversations, interviews, commentaries, and speeches. Text analysis focuses on
the structure of written language, as found in such ‘texts’ as essays, notices,
road signs, and chapters (David Crystal cited in Mills, 1997 : 3).

Discourse is use of language seen as form of social
practice, and discourse analysis is analysis of how texts work within socio
cultural practice. Such analysis requires attention to textual form, structure
and organization at all levels; phonological, grammatical; lexical (vocabulary)
and higher textual organization in term of exchange systems (the distribution
of speaking turns, structures of argumentation, and generic (activity type)
structures. (Norman Fairclough cited in Sumarlam, 2003 : 12)

B.  Theoretical
Framework

1.     
Discourse

According to
Geoffrey Leech and Michael Shom, discourse is linguistic communication seen as
a transaction between speaker and hearer, as an interpersonal activity whose
form is determined by its social purpose. Text linguistic communication (either
spoken or written) seen simply as message coded in its auditory or visual
medium.

2.     
Discourse
Analysis

According to Hugh
Trappes, discourse analysis may, broadly speaking, be defined as the study of
language viewed communicatively and / or of communication viewed
linguistically. Any more detailed spelling out of such a definition typically
involves reference to concepts of language in
use, language above or beyond the
sentence, language as meaning in
interaction, and language in situational
and cultural context.

3.      
Microstructural
Analysis

Sumarlam argues
that  microstructural analysis in
discourse analysis focuses on the mechanism of textual cohesion, that is to
express the words order that can form a discourse to be coherence.
Microstructural analysis is divided into two aspects, there are grammatical
aspect and lexical aspect.

a.      
Grammatical
Aspects

Grammatical aspect in discourse analysis learns about the
connection of form and meaning of the language. The connection of the form is
named cohesion, and the connection of the meaning is coherence. Grammatical
aspect in discourse analysis consists of reference, substitution, ellipsis, and
conjunction.

1)      Reference

Reference
is a type of grammatical aspects in the form of a particular lingual unit that
refers to another lingual unit that precedes or follows it (Sumarlam, 2003 :
23). Reference is divided into two kinds, like endophoric reference and
exophoric reference.

Endophoric
reference is the reference that can be found inside the discourse text, and
exophoric reference is the reference that can be found from the outside of the
discourse text. Based on its reference direction, endophoric reference is
divided into two types, there are anaphoric reference and cataphoric reference
(Sumarlam, 2003 : 23).

Anaphoric
reference is the reference in the form of particular lingual unit that refers
to the other lingual unit that precedes it. But, cataphoric reference is the
reference in the form of particular lingual unit that refers to the other
lingual unit that follows it (Sumarlam, 2003 : 24). According to Sumarlam, the
lingual unit that refers to another lingual unit can be personal pronoun,
demonstrative pronoun, and comparative pronoun.

a)   Personal
Reference (Personal Pronoun)

Personal
pronoun is a word that has a function to replace a noun or noun phrase.
Personal pronouns consist of first person (I), second person (II), and third person
(III), they can be singular and plural.

Subject

Object

 

Subject

Object

I

Me

She

Her

You

You

He

Him

They

Them

It

It

We

Us

 

 

 

b)   Demonstrative
Reference (Demonstrative Pronoun)

According
to Sumarlam (2003 : 25), demonstrative reference is the replacement of time and
place. Halliday and Hasan argue that demonstrative reference is reference by
means of location, on a scale of proximity. It is also essentially a form of
verbal pointing. The circumstantial (adverbial) demonstratives here, there, now, and then refer to the location of a process
in space or time, and they normally do so directly, not via the location of
some people or object.

c)   Comparative
Reference

According to Halliday and
Hasan (pg. 37), comparative reference is the indirect reference by means of
identify or similarity.

2)      Substitution

According
to Sumarlam (2003 : 28), substitution is a replacement of a particular lingual
unit with the other lingual unit in a discourse. Substitution is also a
relation between linguistic items, such as words or phrases (Halliday and
Hasan, 89). It is a relation in the wording rather than in the meaning, the
different types of substitution are defined grammatically rather than
semantically. There are three types of substitution; nominal, verbal, and
clausal.

a)      Nominal
Substitution

The
substitutes one/ones always functions
as Head of a nominal group, and can substitute only for an item which is itself
Head of a nominal group (Halliday and Hasan, pg. 91). According to Sumarlam
(2003 : 28), the nominal substitution is a subtitution that replaces a noun to
another noun.

b)      Verbal
Substitution

Verbal
substitution is a substitution that replaces a particular verb to another verb
(Sumarlam, 2003 : 29).

c)      Clausal
Substitution

Clausal
substitution is a substitution of a clause or a sentence to be another clause
or sentence that is relate.

3)      Ellipsis

Ellipsis
is the deletion of  a particular lingual
unit (it can be a word, phrase, clause, or sentence) that has been mentioned
before (Sumarlam, 2003 : 30).

4)      Conjunction

Conjunction
is a word that is used to connect an element (word, phrase, clause, or
sentence) with another element (Sumarlam, 2003 : 32).

b.      Lexical
Aspects

Lexical
aspect is the semantic relation
of discourse elements. The lexical aspect consists of repetition, synonym,
antonym, collocation, hyponym, and equivalence
(Sumarlam, 2003 : 35).

1)      Repetition

Repetition is the
repeating of a lingunal unit (sounds, syllables, words, or the part of a
sentence) that is important to give an
accentuation in an appropriate context (Sumarlam, 2003 : 35).

Repetition
is divided into some types, there are:

a)     
Epizeuxis
Repetition

Epizeuxis
repetition is the repetitio

b)     
Tautotes
Repetition

c)     
Anaphora
Repetition

d)     
Epistrophe
Repetition

e)     
Symploce
Repetition

f)      
Mesodiplosis
Repetition

g)     
Epanalepsis
Repetition

h)     
Anadiplosis
Repetition

2)     
Synonym

a)      Free morpheme –
bound morpheme

b)      Word and word

c)      Word and phrase
or phrase and word

d)      Phrase and phrase

e)      Clause /
sentence and sentence / clause

3)     
Antonym

a)      Absolute Opposition

b)      Gradable
Opposition

c)      Relational Opposition

d)      Oposisi Hirarkial

e)      Oposisi Majemuk

4)     
Collocation

5)     
Hyponym

6)     
Equivalence

4.     
Macrostructural Analysis

a.      
Socio-culture