Blood Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B and C, CMV, EBV

Blood transfusion is a vital component of
modern clinical practice .It can be life saving or may be life
threatening. With the discovery of Transfusion transmitted infection actually has
proclaimed a new particular point in blood transfusion practice in the world. These are
infections that can be potentially transmitted to the recipient by transfusion
of infected blood and blood products. Blood transfusion is a significant but
not the primary route of transmission.

Blood transfusion carries
potential infectious agents such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis
B and C, CMV, EBV & Herpes ,Parvo viruses 
& Treponema pallidum (spirochaetes), malaria/Filarial Parasite
,Chaga’s and rarely Toxoplasmosis & some Bacterial infections like
Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus & Sreptococcus. Among them Human Immunodeficiency
Virus, Hepatitis B and C, Syphilis are greatly fear infections. They cause
complex clinical course and limited effectiveness of currently available
antiviral therapy.

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Hepatitis B and C caused by Hepatitis
B & C virus. They transmitted through sexual.   parenteral exposure and sometime by close
contact, They cause acute and chronic liver disease like inflammation , cirrhosis,
hematoma (cancer),liver failure etc.They usually asymptomatic and discovered
only during routine laboratory tests. Several viral markers are available for
detection of Hepatitis B virus. Among them major viral marker used for the
detection of HBV infection is Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg).It is the
first marker to appear in the blood during acute stage of HBV infection. Hepatitis
C antigen and antibodies used for the detection of HCV infection.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus
transmitted via blood and body fluids. Acute stage is often non specific or sub
clinical. There is prolong period of clinical latency with virus in the blood
before onset of AIDS. Donor in the incubation period and early infection cannot
be detected.

Risk of TTI through a blood
transfusion is particularly high in countries where there is a significant
prevalence of infection in the donor population.

It is essential part of the global
strategy to ensure supplies of safe blood. Assuring safety of blood is a
multifaceted approach. It is actually joint responsibility of national health
authority, hospital administration, clinician, blood banks and community. So we
have to have a national system being ensure safe blood supply. So we have to
recruit healthy donors with a low risk of TTI and ensure do mandatory testing
of all donated blood.

Our goal is to supply of safe blood
product. But we have some limitation, like genetic diversity of viruses,
serotypes, subtypes and mutant strains and sensitivity of screening assay .Also
we have some challenges like new and re emerging infection and limited
resources.

Whatever your job, your role in this
process is extremely important. You need to develop knowledge and skills to
ensure blood donation is safe to both donor and recipient.