Background Sugar In The Raw®, Stevia In The Raw®,

Background Research: Fermentation is an example of anaerobic cellular respiration. Similar to aerobic respiration, it begins with the process of glycolysis which produces two molecules of pyruvate for each molecule of glucose and a small yield of ATP. Since the respiration lacks oxygen, there is no further production of ATP and the pyruvate is converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide (Ib.bioninja.com.au, 2018).    ATP is a type of energy that enables cell processes and reactions like active transport or growth and repair processes. All organisms perform aerobic respiration and/or fermentation (anaerobic respiration) to produce ATP to power their cellular processes (Khan Academy, 2018).    Yeast are fungi that can be used in bread-making and alcohol production. It can perform respiration either aerobically and anaerobically. Even though aerobic fermentation is more efficient, this experiment will use anaerobic fermentation of sugars through yeast; since no oxygen is being consumed, the rate of fermentation can be determined through the production of CO2.     The sweeteners used in the investigation include Café Delight, Sugar in the Raw, Truvia, Splenda, and Sweet N’ Low. Café Delight is a pure sugar manufactured by Diamond Crystal brands.      Sugar in the Raw uses Turbinado sugar grown in the tropics made exclusively from sugarcane. The juice from the sugarcane is evaporated and crystallized resulting in golden crystals of sugar. This is different from white sugar that refines sugarcane crystals to remove molasses and other commercial brown sugars that dye and flavor white sugar to make it appear more natural (“Sugar In The Raw Frequently Asked Questions And Information | Sugar In The Raw®, Stevia In The Raw®, Agave In The Raw®, Monk Fruit In The Raw® And Now Sugar In The Raw Organic White™”).      Truvia is a sugar substitute made by extracting the natural flavor from the stevia leaf (rebaudioside A) and combining it with erythritol – a natural sweetener produced by fermentation that provides bulk without calories – and other natural flavors (“Truvia Ingredients | Truvia”).      Splenda is a sucralose-based sweetener created by partners Johnson & Johnson subsidiary and Tate & Lyle after they discovered sucralose at Queen Elizabeth College in 1976. Splenda also uses dextrose and maltodextrin as bulking agents (“SPLENDA® Brand Sweetener Faqs | SPLENDA®”).      Sweet ‘N Low is a saccharin-based sweetener that also contains dextrose and cream of tartar for dilution and bulking. Saccharin was discovered by Constantin Fahlberg in 1878 from which Benjamin Eisenstadt and his son marketed Sweet ‘N Low in 1957 with Cumberland Packing Corporation as their distributers (“FAQ | Sweet’n Low”).Rationale: Through sugar fermentation, yeast converts carbohydrates to carbon dioxide and ethanol which is used in baking and alcohol production. The production of carbon dioxide is what causes dough to rise (CraftyBaking | Formerly Baking911, 2000). The purpose of this experiment is to determine which common sweetener is best fermented by yeast and therefore to provide the best option to use while baking.