Atomic Structure? What’s That?What is matter? What is Calcium made up of? How is an atom representation different from an atom in real form? I know and you don’t, so let me let you in on a couple secrets about atomic structure.Matter is what makes up everything, it is everything that makes up anything that takes up space in the universe. Every piece of matter is made up of element. Elements are the things that make up everything, these elements are listed in the Periodic Table of Elements. Inside those Elements are atoms that make up matter are particles, in every atom there have to be two subatomic particles, Protons and Electrons. Protons have a positive charge and electrons have a negative charge, gravity holds them a certain distance apart. In some more developed atoms there are also neutrons inside the nucleus with the protons, neutrons hold a neutral charge (Electrons are outside the nucleus in electron clouds). Believe it or not in those Protons and Neutrons there are fundamental particles. The fundamental particles in the Protons and Neutrons are called quarks, there are up, down, charm, top, bottom, and strange. In Protons and Neutrons there are only up and down quarks, in a proton there are two up quarks and one down quarks (to remember this proton-positive charge), and in a neutron there are two down quarks and one up quark (to remember this neutron-negative charge). Electrons are fundamental particles that are not made up of quarks. A Higgs Boson is another fundamental particle, Higgs Bosons are thought to be in all the “empty” space in the universe/matter, they are thought to be everywhere in the Higgs Field. Regardless of being everywhere, scientists know almost nothing about Higgs Bosons! Even though it’s hard to believe ALL matter is made up of fundamental particles (Up, Down, Top, Bottom, Strange, and Charm quarks, Electrons, and Higgs Bosons!You mean Calcium is more complex that drinking milk? Yes calcium is much more complex than the cup of milk you drink every morning. Calcium is an element that assists in making up matter, and is part of the periodic table. On the periodic table every element has a number in the top left corner that is called the Atomic Number. Every element has a different atomic number, and the atomic number stands for the number of protons in the element’s atom. Calcium’s atomic number is twenty. In a calcium atom there are twenty protons, twenty neutrons, and twenty electrons. Protons and neutrons are not fundamental particles, and can be broken up into quarks. In a Proton there are two up quarks and one down quark, and a neutron has two down quarks and one up quark. Electrons themselves are fundamental particles, and Higgs Bosons are in every atom in all open space. Protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus of an atom, while electrons are found in the electron clouds outside the nucleus (Higgs Bosons are in any open space). The total number of fundamental particles in calcium is 141 (60 up quarks + 60 down quarks + 20 electrons + 1 Higgs Boson for representation). Calcium is usually in the solid and liquid forms, and has the mass of 40.08 amu (amu stands for atomic mass unit, atoms are so small they have their own measurement system). So other than a glass of milk what does calcium do to help our world? Calcium is probably most well known when it comes to teeth and bones. Calcium is often marketed in milk and other dairy products as well as toothpaste and other teeth strengtheners. Calcium also makes a big industry when it comes to cement and concrete, it is an ingredient within the mixture. Last but not least of course, we can thank calcium for helping hold three percent of Earth’s crust together.