The recent progress in the Internet of things (IoT) has brought in a change by setting up an environment in which not simply computers or mobiles devices but also everyday electronic and as well as domestic household items like lights, cars, refrigerators, washing machines etc. are capable enough to join in the internet and can sense, collect and even exchange data. The Internet of Things employs a flexible and distinct architecture which enables variety of millions and millions of devices to effortlessly join on the internet, which is resulting in the production of huge information every other day. It is getting quite difficult for Internet of Things applications to manage this huge information which is generated every day at large scale by making use of cloud alone, so a different sort of computing called Fog computing is suggested which when implemented along with cloud computing easily takes care of the information management in an Internet of Things environment. The report aims to highlights that, why fog computing is needed in the Internet of Things and explains briefly how to implemented Fog in Internet of Things along with cloud computing
Key Words – Internet of Things, Cloud Computing, Information, Fog Computing.
The recent evolution and the changing requirements in technology triggered the development and widespread use of cloud computing over the last few years for efficiently storing and managing data (Subhadeep Sarkar, 2015). Cloud Computing is actually a model of computing that provides on demand pool of sharable resources to whoever request for them on the bases of “pay as you use”. Nonetheless making use of cloud computing in an Internet of Things environment or in an Internet of Things application for managing and storing data is not always the right choice to make (Erik Elmroth, 2017), with each passing day there is an increase in the number of devices that join the internet owing to the booming development of Internet of Things, for cloud data centers to manage all this information and quickly process it is getting difficult day by day.
Due to its popularity and unique architecture that allows every “thing” to join a network and be a part of internet, Internet of Things is producing a bizarre amount and range of data. It is estimated by the Cisco IBSG that by the year 2020 there will be around 50 million devices connected in IoT (Evans, 2011). The current problem that is faced by the Internet of things is the variety of abnormal volume of data that is produced at large scale in the various environments of internet of things, which day by day is getting difficult to be managed by the cloud and other traditional systems.
Traditionally Cloud computing have been used in Internet of Things for managing and storing information, where in the information produced by the Internet of Things devices is saved in the cloud data centers, but cloud has certain challenges associated to it. The processing of data in cloud takes time since cloud is centralized and is not convenient for environments where quick processing is required (Cisco, 2015).
A different sort of infrastructure is required to overcome this problem and manage the data effortlessly that is being generated, the cloud models that are ready for use in the market are not efficient enough to handle the huge volume and variety of data that is generated by the internet of things. Every day billions of devices are getting connected to Internet of Things environments generating two exabytes of data and in such situations moving this huge volume of data to cloud for further additional computing will require huge amount of bandwidth which is costly as cloud computing model works on the principle of “pay as you go” (Flavio Bonomi, 2014).
Fog computing is proposed to overcome the data management and computation problem in IoT. Fog computing implements a model in which the data of a certain device in a network is processed and analyzed at the device itself rather at the cloud, this will help in saving time and aids in quick processing (M. Yannuzzi, 2014). One important thing to note is that Fog computing is not any sort of replacement of Cloud Computing, cloud computing will not be eliminated from the IoT environment instead, Fog computing is implemented along with Cloud Computing to take care of information (Arwa Alrawais, 2017).
In Fog computing data is computed at a place which is nearer to the device where the data is actually generated, hence improving the services between the cloud and IoT devices. Fog computing efficiently coordinates resources like storage etc among the cloud and the Internet of Things devices thereby improving the efficiency of system. Fog computing is lot less cheap and faster than cloud and is very efficient for real time internet of things applications (Zhang, 2016).
Figure 1: Fog Architecture
Fog Computing has lot more advantages to it than Cloud Computing for instance, fulfilling the demands of IoT, Fog computing can do better at it than Cloud could ever but this doesn’t means that Fog computing will be used in place of cloud. Both cloud and fog computing have to coexist together in IoT (Abdelshkour, 2015 ).
An interface is needed between cloud and fog to deliver the resources and services to the end devices, using which the cloud can manage fog, exchange data between them, and distribute and deliver services (Zhang, 2016).
Figure 2: Fog-Cloud Interface