Periodontal
ligament (PDL) tissue plays a
significant role in tooth
preservation by anchoring the connection between the cementum on tooth root and
the bony tooth socket, where it provides support,
protection and provision of sensory input to the masticatory system. PDL tissue
can become compromised or irreversibly damaged by trauma and infectious
disease, such
as periodontitis
and dental caries which leads to causes tooth loss. Tissue engineering is a
therapeutic approach in regenerative dentistry that aims to induce new functional
tissue regeneration by the synergistic combination of cells, scaffolds, and signaling
molecules in many cases. However, these therapies are limited by the severity
of periodontitis, Reconstructed PDL volume is incomplete. Consequently, Recent
tissue engineering techniques based on stem cell biology have been proposed for
developing such a therapy. to reconstruct PDL tissue destroyed.

Stem cells in
PDL tissue (PDLSCs), which are derived from neural crest cell and involved in maintenance, proliferation, self-renewal, differentiation multipotentiality
and surface markers expression of stem
cells.
It has been considered that PDLSCs were the most suitable cells for periodontal
tissue regeneration therapy among other dental stem cells. However, there
remain a number of limitations affecting their therapeutic efficiency. Because
of the significant proliferation and differentiation capacities, recently
reported induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells provide a new approach on
cell-based therapies for periodontal regeneration.

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               The
extracellular matrix (ECM) has key roles
in determining stem cell niche that facilitate periodontal
regeneration. Periodontal ECM is composed of both collagenous and
non-collagenous protein with several molecule components
on stem cell behavior. However, scarce study has explored small-molecule in periodontal
ECM to induce iPSCs, Therefore, the topic that I would like to do research in
Japan is “”Influence of small-molecule
compounds on periodontal tissue development of induced pluripotent stem (iPS)
cells”