3.10 to time for the betterment of academic libraries

3.10   Role of Various Committees and Commissions in
the Development of Libraries 

Education
and libraries are the twin sisters and one cannot be separated from the
other.  And libraries are the main base
of academic system and today they are treated as the heart of educational organizations.  The progress and development of a country is
mostly depends only on the libraries especially on academic libraries.
Therefore efforts have been made since very beginning to constitute various
committees and commissions at time to time for the betterment of academic
libraries in India. These committees and commissions are called the agencies.
In India, before and after independence many commissions were formed stressed
the importance of libraries in higher education.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Every commission and
committee that has gone into the state of higher education in our country since
independence has underlined the importance of libraries in higher education.

3.10.1         Hunter Commission (1882)

Hunter
commission was set up in India in 1882 in British period for the improvement of
libraries.  The commission reported that
the students have only the interest in reading the books of their study.  They did not have interests in other books of
general knowledge.  Therefore, commission
suggested for establishing the libraries in schools and colleges.

3.10.2         Indian University Commission (1902)

Indian
University commission was set up in 1902 with the efforts of the Viceroy Lord
Curzon in relation with the matters of academic libraries of India.  This commission also forced to organize well
the academic libraries in the country for the progress and development.

3.10.3         Sadler Commission (Calcutta University
Commission, 1917-19)

In
1917, the Government of India appointed a commission under the chairmanship of
Sir Michael Saddler, the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Leeds to study
and report on the problems of Calcutta University. So, it was popularly known
as the Sadler Commission.  This
commission has pointed out that the greatest weakness of the existing higher
education system is an extra ordinary unimportant part in it, which is
performed by the library. Few colleges have good libraries. Even the best,
Presidency College is also very defective on many aspects. The commission
recommended that it is right and proper that the College/university should
provide great libraries and great laboratories of research with great scholars
to direct them. This commission recognized the library as one of the necessary
organ of the university and forced in the report on the rank of its librarian
also. The Commission has made a specific recommendation that the post and
salary of the university and college librarian should be similar to that of
Professor, and that he should be an ex-officio member of the Academic Council.
After the recommendation of the commission many new universities were
established and the recommendations were also implemented for the improvement
of library education.

3.10.4         Radhakrishnan Commission (University
Education Commission, 1948-49)

The
Government of India appointed a University Education Commission under a
chairmanship of Dr. S. Radhakrishnan in November 1948. The commission made a
number of significant recommendations on various aspects of higher education
and submitted its report in August 1949. Commission describes that in most of
the colleges and universities in the country the library collections, staff and
services are highly inadequate. The commission has clearly defined the role of
libraries and librarians in maintaining higher standards in teaching and
examinations. Commission report describes
that the teachers must have the necessary tools for teaching purposes in the
shape of libraries and laboratories as also the right type of students. Commission describes that “the
libraries are the heart of all the College/ University’s work; directly so as
regards its research works and indirectly as regards its educational work,
which derives its life from research wok. Scientific research needs a library
as well as its laboratories, while for humanities research the library is both
library and the laboratory in one. Training in higher branches of learning and
research is mainly a question of learning how to use the information tools, and
if the library tools and those who could guide in the use of those tools are
not there, how can the students learn to use them” and asserted that, both for humanistic
and scientific studies, a first class library is essential in a
college/university.

3.10.5         University Grants Commission (1953) 

Indeed,
the development in academic environments in India has only been with the setup
of UGC in 1953.  The UGC, for the
progress of education, developed a system in the libraries.  In which UGC announced to give regular and
other extra grants to libraries for books, periodicals, furniture, building,
tools and equipment’s and staff of the libraries of college as well as
university libraries.  The place of
libraries significantly became better.

3.10.6         University Grants Commission (1956) 

In November 1956 the UGC became a statutory
body upon the passing of the “University Grants Commission Act, 1956”
by the Indian Parliament. After the establishment of the UGC by
the Act of Parliament in 1956, Dr. C. D. Deshmukh, was its first chairman,
while drawing an analogy  between a university
and the human body remarked that the students from the body of university, the
administration is the head, the teacher are the soul and the library is the
heart.

3.10.7         Ranganathan Committee (1957)

UGC
has setup a committee in 1957 under the chairmanship of Dr. S. R. Ranganathan.
It is popularly known as Ranganathan Committee, to look into the conditions of
the academic libraries especially in the field of higher education and which
identified the standards of libraries regarding the working, service conditions
and pay scales of library staff, their training and status. The committee has
listed most of the functions of the library staff which can be found to be
academic and highly specialized. It has pointed out that for library
effectiveness, library staffs have to divide the field of knowledge among
themselves, and practice specialization so as to keep abreast of the progress
of thought in diverse subjects. Their specialization should be extensive rather
than intensive, unlike in the case of a teacher. Each librarian can therefore
cover more subjects than a teacher. Librarian must be able to speak the
language of a teacher and understand his literature needs, make documentation
search for him and thus meet his needs unerringly. In fact librarians and
teachers have to work as partners.

 

3.10.8         Advisory Committee (1958)

The
Government of India was set up an advisory committee to libraries in 1957 under
the chairmanship of Dr. K .P. Sinha to give suggestions and advise concerned
with academic libraries of the country. 
This report which was also known as Sinha Committee Report, which
studies all the suggestions given by all other earlier committees and / or
commissions., Finally Sinha Committee submits its report in the year 1958, and
strongly recommends that the maintenance and organization of libraries is the
duty of the concern Government. Government should provide much financial
support to all academic libraries for their development.

3.10.9         Kothari Commission
(University Education Commission, 1964-66)

The
Education Commission (1964-66) set up under the Chairmanship of Dr. D. S.
Kothari marked another important stage in the history of university libraries
in India. This commission gave its report, which was quite different from the
previous Commission’s reports. Commission in its report has emphasized the
importance of libraries in higher education is reflected in these words, no new
university, college or department should be setup without taking into account
its library needs in terms of staff, books, journals, space etc. Kothari
Education Commission was very much pertinent about the importance of a library
in an educational institution when it pointed out that, “Nothing could be more
damaging to a growing department than to neglect its library or give it a low
priority. On the contrary, the library should be an important centre of
attraction on the college and university campus”.

Kothari Commission (India,
University Education Commission, 1964-66) on education to
role of the library services in higher education is reflected in these words,
“No new university, its department or college should be set up without taking
into account its library needs in terms of staff, books, journals, space, etc.
Nothing could be more damaging to an educational institution than to neglect
its library or to give it a low priority. On the contrary, the library should
be an important centre of attraction in the college or university campus.”

College Library
Functions:

Based
on the report of the education Commission the functions of the college library
can be outlined as follows:

·       
Providing information resources necessary
for teaching and research;

·       
Aiding the teacher in keeping abreast of
current developments in his field;

·       
Providing instruction and guidance
necessary for all formal academic programmes;

·       
Opening the door of the wide world of
knowledge, that lie beyond the borders of a teachers own field of
specialization; and

·       
Bringing information, students and
teachers together under conditions which encourage reading for pleasure, self
discovery, personal growth and sharpening of intellectual curiosity.

3.8.10                   Atkinson Committee (1976)

Atkinson
Committee report (1976) also emphasized the role the
university library observed, “The library is the core of the university. As a
resource it occupies the central and primary place, because it serves all the
functions of a university teaching and research, the creation of knowledge and
transmission of posterity of the learning and culture of the present and the
past.”

 

Report
of the expert committee on the minimum qualifications and workloads etc. for
Librarians and Directors of Physical Education in Universities and Colleges

 

1.4
    The main recommendations/ observations
of the Committee are as follows:

1.4.1  “The Committee noted that the principle of parity
has been established in the matter of scales of pay between university and
college teachers and Librarians and Directors/Instructors of Physical Education
in the universities and colleges. In the case of teachers, the Committee has
recommended pay-scales in the existing framework; the same may be applied to
pay-scales of these categories. These pay scales may, therefore, be treated as
notional and would have to be converted in the light of the recommendations of
the Fourth Pay Commission. The Committee recommends that while converting these
scales, it should be ensured that the Librarians and Directors/Instructors of
Physical Education in universities and colleges are not put to any financial
disadvantage and envisaged parity is maintained.”

3.10.11       Mehrotra Commission (1983)

The
UGC appointed a committee on December 24, 1983 under the chairmanship of
Professor R. C. Mehrotra, to consider the revision of pay scales, career /
professional development and service conditions of the teachers in universities
and colleges.

In
October 1985, the UGC in consultation with Government of India, requested the
Mehrotra Committee to consider the revision of pay scales of Librarian and
Directors of Physical Education too. The committee submitted the report on
revision of pay scale of Librarian to the UGC on September 03rd,
1986.

The
main recommendations/ observations of the Committee are as follows: “The Committee
noted that the principle of parity has been established in the matter of scales
of pay between university and college teachers and Librarians and
Directors/Instructors of Physical Education in the universities and colleges.
In the case of teachers, the Committee has recommended pay-scales in the
existing framework; the same may be applied to pay-scales of these categories.
These pay scales may, therefore, be treated as notional and would have to be
converted in the light of the recommendations of the Fourth Pay Commission. The
Committee recommends that while converting these scales, it should be ensured
that the Librarians and Directors/Instructors of Physical Education in universities
and colleges are not put to any financial disadvantage and envisaged parity is
maintained.”

The
committee in its report pointed out that the library performs a crucial role in
educational process. Committee discussed at length the qualification for
recruitment of Librarians. Qualifying National Eligibility Test (NET) in
Library and Information Science subject for the College Librarians were made
necessary for improving the quality of new entrants. The Committee recommended
that treating librarians at par with teachers, by revising qualifications of
the library staff as per UGC norms, granting academic status and service
conditions to librarians equivalent to teaching faculty. It also pointed out
that the easiest way to assess the climate, temper and academic achievement of
an educational institution, is to visit its library and see how it is being
maintained and utilized.

The
Government of India accepted the recommendation of the Mehrotra Committee and
implemented it.

 

3.10.12       National Policy on Education (1986)

Based
on the Kothari Commission Report, a national policy on education was formulated
by the Government in 1986. It laid stress on imparting education through
regional languages; this policy was to be reviewed after every five years.

On
5th January 1985, the Prime Minister of India promised to formulate a new
education policy in order to prepare the country for the 21st
century. And finally a document Challenge of Education: a policy perspective
was placed before the Indian Parliament on 20th August 1985. The document made
a survey of existing educational scenario and suggested the task ahead. It was
severely criticized for not emphasizing the role of libraries. However, a
revised document on New Educational Policy was prepared and submitted to the
Parliament in 1986.

3.8.13                   Joy
Committee Kerala (1993)

As
education being a state subject, union government’s role in implementing these
reports was limited. The recommendations failed to get implemented in the
states. Kerala was the first state to make any serious attempt at the
government level, to vitalize college library services. Government of Kerala
constituted in 1993 an Expert Committee on College Libraries under the
chairmanship of Sri V. P. Joy, IAS to examine the functioning of college
libraries and suggest suitable measures for their improvement. The committee
has pointed out that the effectiveness of services from the library is an
important factor determining the quality of teaching-learning process in a
college.

 

3.10.14                 Statute
of teacher described by the MHRD; UGC/AICTE                                (Under Section 28(r), 28(u), 53(iv) of
M.U. Act 1994)

“Teacher”
means full time approved Professor, Associate Professor, Assistant professor,
Lectures, Librarian, Director or Instructor of Physical Education in any
affiliated or autonomous colleges, Engineering and Technology
faculties/Departments of universities or other institutions of Technical
Education including Architecture and Pharmacy at degree or equivalent level.

 

3.10.15                 National
Knowledge Commission (NKC) (2005)

National Knowledge Commission (NKC)
Setup by Prime Minister on June 13, 2005

_ The National Knowledge Commission is a
high-level advisory body to the Prime Minister of India, with the objective of
transforming India into a Knowledge Society. It covers sectors ranging from education
to e-governance to the five focus areas of the knowledge paradigm:

Access: easy access to knowledge

Concepts: all levels and forms of
education

Creation: effective creation of knowledge

Application: of knowledge system

Services:
like e-governance

NKC has constituted working groups for
expert opinions. One working group has been constituted for Libraries. This
group has submitted status of libraries in the institutions of higher learning
and given the recommendations, a few of them are:

_ Set up a National Commission on
Libraries

_ Prepare a National Census of all
Libraries

_ Revamp LIS Education, Training and
Research Facilities

_ Re-assess staffing of Libraries

_ Set up a Central Library Fund

_
Modernize Library Management

3.10.16       MHRD and UGC Regulations (2009-10)

The
Govt. of India, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Department of Higher
Education vide its letter No. 1-32/2006U.I /U.I(i) dated 31.12.2008 has
approved a new scheme stipulating revised pay structure, service conditions and
educational qualifications in respect of Teachers, Librarians and Physical
Education Personnel of Universities and Colleges. Further, the University
Grants Commission in its Notification No.F.1-1/2002 (PS) Exmp, dated 12.06.2009
and No.F.31/2009 (PS) dated 23.09.2009 has issued guidelines regarding the
minimum qualifications required for the appointment of teachers, Librarians and
Physical Education Personnel and other academic staff in Universities and
Colleges and for their Career Advancement and the measures for the maintenance
of standards in Higher Education. 

The
University Grants Commission vide its No.F.3-1/2009 dated 30.06.2010  has notified the UGC regulations on minimum
qualifications for appointment of teachers, librarians and physical education
personnel and other academic staff in universities and colleges and measures
for the maintenance of standards in higher education 2010 (Gazette of India on
September 18, 2010 (BHADRA 27,1932) in Part II – Sec. 4).

Therefore,
as above mentioned various commissions? reports and recommendation a librarian
serving in academic institutions is considered as “Teacher Librarian?. The
college librarian’s designation is equivalent and modified treated as Assistant
Professor and Selection Grade Librarian treated as Associate Professor and
Chief Librarian treated as Professor, in order to recognize valuable service of
librarians at par with teaching faculty especially in higher education
institutions.